Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador
Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador

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Martinez-Marquez A.,University of Alicante | Morante-Carriel J.,University of Alicante | Morante-Carriel J.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Selles-Marchart S.,University of Alicante | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is emerging as a promising technique for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers in complex biological samples. Compared to Western blotting or enzyme assays, its high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, assay speed, and sample throughput represent a clear advantage for being the approach of choice for the analysis of proteins. MRM assays are capable of detecting and quantifying proteolytic peptides differing in mass unique to particular proteins, that is, proteotypic peptides, through which different protein isoforms can be distinguished. We have focused on polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a plant conspicuous enzyme encoded by a multigenic family in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) and other related species. PPO is responsible for both the protection of plants from biotic stress as a feeding deterrent for herbivore insects and the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. The latter makes fruit more attractive to seed dispersal agents but is also a major cause of important economic losses in agriculture and food industry. An adequate management of PPO at plant breeding level would maximize the benefits and minimize the disadvantages of this enzyme, but it would require a precise knowledge of the biological role played by each isoform in the plant. Thus, for the functional study of the PPOs, we have cloned and overexpressed fragments of three PPO isoforms from loquat to develop MRM-based methods for the quantification of each isoform. The method was developed using an ion trap instrument and validated in a QQQ instrument. It resulted in the selection of at least two peptides for each isoform that can be monitored by at least three transitions. A combination of SDS-PAGE and MRM lead to detect two out of three monitored isoforms in different gel bands corresponding to different processing stages of PPO. The method was applied to determine the amount of the PPO2 isoform in protein extracts from fruit samples using external calibrants. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Gutierrez R.C.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Valenzuela L.,University of Concepción | Wilson H.P.,Austral University of Chile
Drvna Industrija | Year: 2016

Three layer particleboards were manufactured using hygrothermally treated and untreated Laureliopsis philippiana (tepa) particles with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin. Hygrothermal treatment consisted of autoclaving particles at 150 °C for 90 min (430 kPa) in a steam saturated atmosphere. Density, moisture content, swelling and water absorption were determined. Equilibrium moisture, dimensional variation in length and thickness, as well as length and thickness coefficients per every 1 % change in board equilibrium moisture were also determined after acclimatization at different relative air humidity conditions (20 °C; 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % RAH). There were significant differences between particleboards made from control and treated particles. Boards manufactured with treated particles showed a reduction in moisture content, swelling and water absorption. Dimensional stability analysis in response to relative air humidity (RAH) showed that the hygrothermal treatment causes a reduction in equilibrium moisture, a decrease in length and thickness dimensional variation, likewise a reduction in length and thickness swelling coefficients. © 2016, Journal Drvna Industrija. All rights reserved.

Morante-Carriel J.,University of Alicante | Morante-Carriel J.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Selles-Marchart S.,University of Alicante | Martinez-Marquez A.,University of Alicante | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2014

RNA isolation is difficult in plants that contain large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds. To date, no commercial kit has been developed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from tissues with these characteristics, especially for fruit. The common protocols for RNA isolation are tedious and usually result in poor yields when applied to recalcitrant plant tissues. Here an efficient RNA isolation protocol based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and two successive precipitations with 10 M lithium chloride (LiCl) was developed specifically for loquat fruits, but it was proved to work efficiently in other tissues of loquat and woody plants. The RNA isolated by this improved protocol was not only of high purity and integrity (A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.90 to 2.04 and A 260/A230 ratios were > 2.0) but also of high yield (up to 720 μg on average [coefficient of variation = 21%] total RNA per gram fresh tissue). The protocol was tested on loquat fruit (different stages of development, postharvest, ripening, and bruising), leaf, root, flower, stem, and bud; quince fruit and root; grapevine cells in liquid culture; and rose petals. The RNA obtained with this method is amenable to enzymatic treatments and can be efficiently applied for research on gene characterization, expression, and function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zambrano-Vega C.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Nebro A.J.,University of Malaga | Aldana-Montes J.F.,University of Malaga
Methods in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2016

Phylogenetic inference is the process of searching and reconstructing the best phylogenetic tree that explains the evolution of species from a given data set. It is considered as an NP-hard problem due to the computational complexity required to find the optimal phylogenetic trees in the space of all the possible topologies. We have developed MO-Phylogenetics, a software tool to infer phylogenetic trees optimizing two reconstruction criteria simultaneously, integrating a framework for multi-objective optimization with two phylogenetic software packages. As a result, researchers in life sciences have at their disposal a high-performance tool including a number of multi-objective metaheuristics that can be applied to phylogenetic inference using the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood as objectives to be optimized at the same time. © 2016 British Ecological Society.

Erazo O.,University of Chile | Erazo O.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Pino J.A.,University of Chile
International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Proceedings IUI | Year: 2015

Model-based evaluation has been widely used in HCI. However, current predictive models are insufficient to evaluate Natural User Interfaces based on touchless hand gestures. The purpose of this paper is to present a model based on KLM to predict performance time for doing tasks using this interface type. The required model operators were defined considering the temporal structure of hand gestures (i.e. using gesture units) and performing a systematic bibliographic review. The times for these operators were estimated by a user study consisting of various parts. Finally, the model empirical evaluation gave acceptable results (root-mean-square error = 10%, R2 = 0.936) when compared to similar models developed for other interaction styles. Thus, the proposed model should be helpful to software designers to carry out usability assessments by predicting performance time without user participation. Copyright 2015 ACM.

Triazol and their mixtures with strobylurins are the main fungicides used to control Asian rust on soybeans. Shifting in fungal sensibility to fungicides demands continuous monitoring on the efficacy of such compounds. In this research a comparative study on rust control was carried out with the fungicide tebuconazol (triazol) and the mixture of epoxiconazol + pyraclostrobin (triazol + strobylurin), which were sprayed once, twice or three times from different plant growth stages (V9, R4, or R5.3). A total of 64 randomized plots of Nidera 5909 AG soybeans were assessed for number of lesions and uredia, later converted into percent severity for each third part of the plant (lower, medium, and upper). Rust severity was over 40% on non-treated plants. Disease progress was higher at the lower third. Spray applications began at V9 (main stem with nine trifolia) resulted in better rust control. The mix of triazol + strobylurin was more efficacious than the triazol alone. Disease increase was mainly driven by the amount of lesions, since the number of uredia per lesion did not vary significantly among treatments.

Sanchez-Llaguno S.N.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Neira-Mosquera J.A.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Perez-Rodriguez F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Moreno Rojas R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2013

Introduction: Ecuador is a country with limited nutritional information, with exception of some general studies supported by Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). Aims: To carry out a nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet and determine the percentage of contribution to the intake of different nutrients according to the order of the meal (breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner snack) and Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Methods: For that purpose a pilot survey based on 24-h food recall method was carried out in three specific regions in Ecuador and collected information was processed, analyzed statistically and compared with DRIs established for Latin-American population. Results: The study found significant differences for energy and certain vitamins in men and women in addition to determining that the highest energy contribution was obtained in lunch, followed by the afternoon snack and breakfast. Intermediate meals (morning snack, afternoon snack and dinner snack) contributed significantly less in the daily diet in comparison with other types of meal. Furthermore, it was observed that analyzed intakes did not meet the DRI for Carbohydrates, some vitamins (Thiamin, Pantothenic, Biotin, Folate Vitamin D and Vitamin E) and minerals (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I and Fe). The Na intakes were quite above the DRI and Tolerable Upper Limit given by USDA, indicating a Public Health problem in relation with this electrolyte. Conclusions: The present pilot survey can be considered as a starting point to get insight into the Ecuadorian diet. This will allow to determine consumption patterns affecting population welfare and to evidence attendant positive and adverse effects.

Fiallos F.R.G.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Yanez H.V.G.,Technical State University of Quevedo
Bioscience Journal | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to quantify the intensity of disease, yield and its components in bean genotypes promising during the summer season in Quevedo, Ecuador. The genetic material used were the lines Cf4 0-0-2-1, Cf6 0-0-4-9 and Cf6 0-0-4-8 (habit growth determinate type Ia), SER-03 and SER-08 (growth habit indeterminate type IIb), and two foreign varieties FTS Soberano and BRS Valente (black group with habit growth indeterminate) used as controls. The intensity of rust (Uromyces appendiculatus Pers.: Pers.) and web blight [Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn)] were quantified in central leaflets during four weeks (09/09, 16/09, 23/09 and 30/09) for the first disease and six weeks (26/08, 02/09, 09/09, 16/09, 23/09 and 30/09) for the second, these values being paid-in the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). For the case of web blight was also quantified the number of lesions leaflet-1 during reproductive stages R7 and R8. Similarly, after the harvest was determined theincidence of gray rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.] and brown (R. solani), and quantified the yield components per plant (number of nodes, number of pods, number of grains, number of grains per pod and sterile pods) and yield (kg ha-1). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven treatments and four replications. To compare the treatment means was employed the test Scott-Knott at 5% probability of error. Highlighted the variety FTS Soberano for accumulate a lower AUDPCS rust. Regarding the web blight, the promising lines SER-03 and SER-08, and the varieties FTS Soberano and BRS Valente showed less disease in all variables. For root diseases, the lines Cf6 0-0-4-8 and SER-03 had a lower incidence of brown rot, however these same materials including the SER-08 showed superiority sanitary of gray rot. The promising line SER-03 and the varieties FTS Soberano and BRS Valente showed higher average number of nodes per plant, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant and number of grains per pod per plant. Finally, the lines SER-08, Cf6 0-0-4-9 and the varieties SER-08 and BRS Valente showed a highest grain yield (kg há-1).

Rivano F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Mattos C.R.R.,Michelin | Cardoso S.E.A.,Michelin | Martinez M.,Technical State University of Quevedo | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The CIRAD-Michelin-Brazil (CMB) breeding program was set up in 1992 and has produced several genotypes as alternative varieties for growing in suboptimal regions and areas affected by South American Leaf Blight (SALB). From a large parent population of more than 113 clones, the program developed CMB genotypes evaluated in large-scale clone trials. Based on accurate knowledge of the parents' agronomic potential, the CMB breeding program combined family and individual selection in the seedling evaluation trials. The segregation ratios of the SALB resistance traits in the progeny were used to identify and reject parents whose resistance was determined by a small number of genes, easily overcome by Microcyclus ulei strains. After evaluating the germplasm, 13 genotypes were selected for evaluation of their resistance, girth and rubber production in a trial network covering eight sites in Brazil and Ecuador. There were significant differences between clones, sites and clone-site interactions. The resistance of the clones to SALB was confirmed for all sites, both for conidial and sexual fungal stages. The growth rate in Ecuador was always higher than in Brazil with the exception of one clone. Data from previous years of production for a few clones was used to estimate the potential yield of these clones compared to clones usually planted in Latin America. Simultaneous selection for SALB resistance, yield and growth resulted in promising genotypes which need to be tested in areas with different environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gomez J.,University of Córdoba, Colombia | Oviedo B.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Zhuma E.,Technical State University of Quevedo
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2016

The increased use of mobile technologies and smart devices in the area of health has caused great impact on the world. Health experts are increasingly taking advantage of the benefits these technologies bring, thus generating a significant improvement in health care in clinical settings and out of them. Likewise, countless ordinary users are being served from the advantages of the M-Health (Mobile Health) applications and E-Health (health care supported by ICT) to improve, help and assist their health. Applications that have had a major refuge for these users, so intuitive environment. The Internet of things is increasingly allowing to integrate devices capable of connecting to the Internet and provide information on the state of health of patients and provide information in real time to doctors who assist. It is clear that chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart and pressure among others, are remarkable in the world economic and social level problem. The aim of this article is to develop an architecture based on an ontology capable of monitoring the health and workout routine recommendations to patients with chronic diseases. © 2016 The Authors.

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