Satya Narayana K.S.L.,Technical Services
ASME 2015 India International Oil and Gas Pipeline Conference, IOGPC 2015 | Year: 2015
Over the last few years, the importance of detecting sulphur in petroleum products has increased dramatically. This is related to the necessity of complying with increasingly stringent government regulations and ensuring product quality. Reasons for detection and Monitoring of sulphur in different petroleum products has existed for the last so many years, but detection limits have been reduced dramatically in recent times. The sulphur analyzers for present requirements must now have the ability to detect sulphur from 1 parts per billion to 500 parts per million. This paper discusses about the following aspects: •Indian Emission standards •Evolution of BS 3/4/5 grades •Need for online sulphur analyzers (OSA) in Pipeline industry. •Detection technology •Various options available in Online sulphur analyzers Low Sulphur norms in Petroleum Products have evolved due to the following reasons: -SO2 formed during combustion of fuels in IC engines damage the engines. -Acids of SO2 increase rusting of engine parts, piston rings and cylinder walls. -In environment, SO2 converts to Sulphuric acid by reaction with moisture and harm vegetation, aquatic, animal and human life. -SO2 also corrodes man made buildings and monuments This paper also explains about the various types of Online Suplhur analyzers users in HPCL and the issues faced with the same at feld level. Copyright © 2015 by ASME.
Shah R.M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University |
Abbas N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University |
Shad S.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University |
Varloud M.,Technical Services
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015
Pyriproxyfen is a growth regulator used for the control of different insect pests, including Musca domestica. To assess the risk of resistance and to develop a strategy for resistance management, a field strain of M. domestica was exposed to pyriproxyfen in the laboratory for 30 generations. The inheritance mode, realized heritability of pyriproxyfen resistance and cross-resistance to other insecticides were assessed. Prior to the selection process, the field strain exhibited a resistance ratio (RR) of 25.7, 7.31, 7.67, and 27-fold for pyriproxyfen, methoxyfenozide, cyromazine and lufenuron, respectively, when compared to the pyriproxyfen susceptible strain (Pyri-Sus). After continuous selection with pyriproxyfen, the pyriproxyfen-resistant strain (Pyri-Res) became 206-fold more resistant than the Pyri-Sus strain. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values of F1 (Pyri-Res ♂×Pyri-Sus ♀) and F1 † (Pyri-Res ♀×Pyri-Sus ♂) suggested an autosomal and completely dominant mode of resistance to pyriproxyfen. Monogenic test of inheritance showed that resistance to pyriproxyfen was governed by multiple genes. The Pyri-Res strain showed very low cross resistance to methoxyfenozide, cyromazine, and lufenuron. The estimated realized heritability was 0.02, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.04 for pyriproxyfen, methoxyfenozide, cyromazine, and lufenuron, respectively. It was concluded that pyriproxyfen resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, completely dominant and polygenic. These results would be helpful for the design of an improved control strategy against M. domestica. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Westrip S.P.,Technical Services
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2010
publCIF is an application designed for creating, editing and validating crystallographic information files (CIFs) that are used in journal publication. It validates syntax and dictionary-defined data attributes through internal routines, and also provides a web interface to the checkCIF service of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr), which provides a full crystallographic analysis of the structural data. The graphical interface allows users to edit the CIF either in its raw ASCII form (using a text editor with context-sensitive data validation and input facilities) or as a formatted representation of a structure report (using a word-processing environment), as well as via a number of convenience tools (e.g. spreadsheet representations of looped data). Beyond file and data validation, publCIF provides access to resources to facilitate preparation of a structure report (e.g. databases of author details, experimental data, standard references etc., either distributed with the program or collected during its use), along with tools for reference parsing, spell checking, structure visualization and image management. publCIF was commissioned by the IUCr, both as free software for authors and as a tool for in-house journal production; the tool for authors is described here. Binary distributions for Linux, MacOS and Windows operating systems are available. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.
Bezuidenhout P.,Technical Services
Water Sewage and Effluent | Year: 2014
Is the apparent disconnect between the central government's position on private sector Involvement and the position being taken by local government decision makers in rural local authorities leading to a low point in service delivery? Experience since the early, error-ridden days of private sector involvement indicate that well-structured agreements, strict management of costs and service quality coupled with additional control mechanisms is bringing success to all parties, including improved standards of service delivery to the poor.
Devitt C.,Technical Services
Water | Year: 2010
Orange City Council in central NSW has been the first Council in Australia to implement intentional urban stormwater harvesting for drinking water supplies. Furthermore it has done this making use of engineered treatment processes and an existing water supply dam. Council received the necessary authorisation from DWE in July 2008 to commence construction under an emergency approval. Construction work began in September 2008 and is about to commence operation in continuous mode. This project has evolved from concept to operational reality within 18 months at a cost of $5 million involving extensive consultation with the community and government authorities. Results of the first stage of commissioning are summarised in this paper.