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Manangwa O.,Vector and Vector Borne Disease Institute | Ouma J.O.,Africa Technical Research Center | Ouma J.O.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Malele I.,Vector and Vector Borne Disease Institute | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes which affect livestock and human health in sub Saharan african countries including Tanzania.The wide occurrence of this disease in people and their livestock has negatively impacted the development of viable agricultural systems in many areas of great agricultural potential including areas of the Lake Victoria basin in Tanzania.The present study investigated trypanosome infection rate in G. f. fuscipes in Kirongwe, Masonga, Rasi Nyabero and Tobwe River in Rorya district, Msozi village in Ukerewe district and Kemondo in rural Bukoba district during the dry and wet seasons. Trypanosome infection in cattle was also investigated in the same villages except Kemondo village with a view to understand the risk of the disease to livestock and humans in the study area.Tsetse flies were collected using biconical and pyramidal traps in Kirongwe, Masonga, Rasi Nyabero and Tobwe River.Twenty traps were deployed after every 150 to 200 meters during the dry season and wet season. A total of 120 flies were examined microscopically and 215 by Polymerization Chain Reaction (PCR) for trypanosome infection. Trypanosomes infection in cattle was also assessed in order to understand the risk of the disease to cattle and humans in the study area. Blood was collected from 116 cattle and examined under microscope for trypanosome infection. Some blood was stored in FTA cards for trypanosome infection rate analysis using PCR. No infection was detected microscopically but PCR showed (2%) of G. f. fuscipes was infected by T. b. brucei at Rasi Nyabero village during the dry season. Similarly, for the wet season, one female fly (2.5%) out of 40 was found positive for T. congolense Kilifi in Msozi village. Microscopic examination showed no cattle were infected but PCR indicated one female cow out of 116 cows (0.86%) at Rasi Nyabero village was infected with T. vivax. Generally, trypanosome prevalence in G. f. fuscipes and cattle was low for all seasons. The low infection rate should not be taken for granted, regular surveillance is important in monitoring the problem in the study area since the Lake Victoria shore is known to be a risk area for trypanosomiasis. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Simon S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Simon S.,INRAB Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | Komlan F.A.,INRAB Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | Adjaito L.,INRAB Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2014

In Africa, synthetic pesticide applications are overly frequent and above labelled rates. We assessed the efficacy of an insect net physical control system on field cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) production in France and Benin. Various mesh sizes and netting removal frequencies were compared under contrasting climatic conditions. Studies under Mediterranean climatic conditions (spring season) compared two mesh sizes (0.73 mm and 1.6 mm). Studies under subequatorial climatic conditions (cool and hot seasons) tested nets of mesh size 0.4 mm and 0.9 mm used either as permanent cover, removed daily, or 3 days per week. The results showed that a fine mesh did not improve the netting efficacy against pests but had a major impact on the microclimate. In Mediterranean climatic conditions, the netting efficacy and beneficial microclimate improved crop yields. In subequatorial conditions, crop yields were lowest with permanent net protection due to high temperatures under the nets and poor aphid and Spodoptera littoralis control. Removing the nets 3 days per week was a good technical/economic trade-off, ensuring acceptable efficacy with minimal effects on the microclimate. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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