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Kaushik N.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Karmakar D.,Technical Physics Division | Nipane A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Karande S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Lodha S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

We demonstrate a low and constant effective Schottky barrier height (φB ∼ 40 meV) irrespective of the metal work function by introducing an ultrathin TiO2 ALD interfacial layer between various metals (Ti, Ni, Au, and Pd) and MoS2. Transmission line method devices with and without the contact TiO2 interfacial layer on the same MoS2 flake demonstrate reduced (24×) contact resistance (RC) in the presence of TiO2. The insertion of TiO2 at the source-drain contact interface results in significant improvement in the on-current and field effect mobility (up to 10×). The reduction in RC and φB has been explained through interfacial doping of MoS2 and validated by first-principles calculations, which indicate metallic behavior of the TiO2-MoS2 interface. Consistent with DFT results of interfacial doping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data also exhibit a 0.5 eV shift toward higher binding energies for Mo 3d and S 2p peaks in the presence of TiO2, indicating Fermi level movement toward the conduction band (n-type doping). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) further corroborates the interfacial doping model, as MoS2 flakes capped with ultrathin TiO2 exhibit a reduction of 0.3 eV in the effective work function. Finally, a systematic comparison of the impact of selective doping with the TiO2 layer under the source-drain metal relative to that on top of the MoS2 channel shows a larger benefit for transistor performance from the reduction in source-drain contact resistance. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Joshi A.,University of Pune | Gangal S.A.,University of Pune | Gupta S.K.,Technical Physics Division
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical

Polypyrrole thin films were synthesized in situ by chemical polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed formation of polypyrrole. The morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy showed formation of uniform granular structure with average grain size of 0.6 μm. The film composition was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical composition in polypyrrole film. These films were investigated for their sensing behaviour towards NH3 and NO at room temperature. It has been observed that these films are selective for NH3 and the sensitivity exhibited a linear response in range of 4-80 ppm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All Rights Reserved. Source

Nipane A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Karmakar D.,Technical Physics Division | Kaushik N.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Karande S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Lodha S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
ACS Nano

P-type doping of MoS2 has proved to be a significant bottleneck in the realization of fundamental devices such as p-n junction diodes and p-type transistors due to its intrinsic n-type behavior. We report a CMOS compatible, controllable and area selective phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process for p-type doping of MoS2. Physical characterization using SIMS, AFM, XRD and Raman techniques was used to identify process conditions with reduced lattice defects as well as low surface damage and etching, 4X lower than previous plasma based doping reports for MoS2. A wide range of nondegenerate to degenerate p-type doping is demonstrated in MoS2 field effect transistors exhibiting dominant hole transport. Nearly ideal and air stable, lateral homogeneous p-n junction diodes with a gate-tunable rectification ratio as high as 2 × 104 are demonstrated using area selective doping. Comparison of XPS data from unimplanted and implanted MoS2 layers shows a shift of 0.67 eV toward lower binding energies for Mo and S peaks indicating p-type doping. First-principles calculations using density functional theory techniques confirm p-type doping due to charge transfer originating from substitutional as well as physisorbed phosphorus in top few layers of MoS2. Pre-existing sulfur vacancies are shown to enhance the doping level significantly. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Tiwari B.,Technical Physics Division | Dixit A.,Glass and Advanced Ceramics Division | Kothiyal G.P.,Glass and Advanced Ceramics Division
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Glasses having composition (in wt.%) 51SrO-9ZnO-(40-x)SiO2 (SZS), where x represents the additives like B2O3, Al 2O3, V2O5, and Cr2O 3, were prepared by melt-quench method and transformed into glass-ceramics by controlled crystallization based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using dilatometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that glass-ceramics are composed of mainly Sr2ZnSi 2O7 and SrSiO3 crystalline phases along with residual glassy phase. Raman spectroscopy showed that main constitutes of the glass network are the Q1 and Q2 silicate structural units. With the addition of B2O3 and other additives silicate glass network depolymerizes and concentration of Q1 structural units increases at the expense of Q2 units. Formation of phases during crystallization depends on the presence of different silicate structural units in the glass matrix. B2O3 goes into the glass network as triangular (BO3) borate structural units and at higher concentration of B2O3, only a part of the B2O3 forms tetragonal (BO4) structural units. Investigated glasses and glass-ceramics have thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) in the range of 105-120 × 10-7/°C which matches with TEC of other cell components. B2O3 containing SZS glasses show good adhesion/bonding with YSZ and Crofer 22 APU. Elemental line scans indicate that interdiffusion of Fe, Cr and Si across interface is responsible for good bonding with Crofer 22 APU and interdiffusion of Sr, Si, Y and Zr is responsible for good bonding with YSZ. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Maheshwari P.,Radiochemistry Division | Mukherjee S.,Radiochemistry Division | Bhattacharya D.,Solid State Physics Division | Sen S.,Technical Physics Division | And 5 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

Surface engineering of SiO2 dielectric using different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been carried out, and its effect on the molecular packing and growth behavior of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) has been studied. A correlation between the growth behavior and performance of organic field effect transistors is examined. Depth profiling using positron annihilation and X-ray reflectivity techniques has been employed to characterize the interface between CuPc and the modified and/or unmodified dielectric. We observe the presence of structural defects or disorder due to disorientation of CuPc molecules on the unmodified dielectric and ordered arrangement on the modified dielectrics, consistent with the high charge carrier mobility in organic field effect transistors in the latter. The study also highlights the sensitivity of these techniques to the packing of CuPc molecules on SiO2 modified using different SAMs. Our study also signifies the sensitivity and utility of these two techniques in the characterization of buried interfaces in organic devices. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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