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Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France

Gwanpua S.G.,Catholic University of Leuven | Verboven P.,Catholic University of Leuven | Leducq D.,IRSTEA | Brown T.,London South Bank University | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2015

Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated food, energy use and the global warming impact of refrigeration technologies. The food quality models implemented in the FRISBEE tool are based on validated kinetic models, most of which are available as separate publications in this issue, while the models for calculating energy use and global warming impact have been validated using independent data. The software was developed within the framework of the European Union FP7 project, FRISBEE (Food Refrigeration Innovations for Safety, consumers' Benefit, Environmental impact and Energy optimisation along the cold chain in Europe). The consumers' version of the FRISBEE tool, with limited functionalities, will be made available as free downloadable software on the FRISBEE website, while the version with full functionalities will be used for consultancy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Stahl V.,Technical Institute for Food Industry | Ndoye F.T.,IRSTEA | El Jabri M.,Technical Institute for Food Industry | Le Page J.F.,Technical Institute for Food Industry | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2015

It is of crucial importance for Ready-To-Eat (RTE) foodstuffs producers to guarantee the quality and safety of their products under the cold chain variations related to different time-temperature profiles. Experimental designs were used to investigate and model the effects of temperature on safety and quality attributes of selected RTE meat products. Three types of RTE sliced pork products (cooked ham, cooked paté and smoked ham) were stored at different temperatures (5, 8, 12 and 15 °C) up to 6 weeks. Microbiological and physico-chemical attributes were followed. Growth parameters of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated by challenge testing for the three RTE products at the four temperatures. Two lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes) were also investigated by challenge testing but only for cooked ham and cooked paté at 8°C. Changes in quality indicators including colour, texture and water content, water activity and water dripping were evaluated over storage time for the three RTE products. Spoilage experiments were conducted (at 2, 8, 12, 15°C for 48 days) on cooked ham and the production of ethanol, as a representative volatile deriving from bacterial metabolism, was correlated to bacterial outgrowth. Growth parameters of the three strains for the given food were mathematically modelled and validation tests were performed for L. monocytogenes in cooked ham and cooked paté. Physico-chemical attributes were not significantly affected by time-temperature storage. The production of ethanol on spoiled cooked ham was related to growth of lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc. A threshold value of ethanol concentration was defined in relation with a threshold count numbers of LAB under the conditions studied. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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