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Alsalhy Q.,University of Technology, Iraq | Merza A.,Technical College Baghdad | Rashid K.,University of Technology, Iraq | Adam A.,Technical College Baghdad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were prepared from blends of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and polystyrene (PS) with a dry/wet phase inversion method. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N-dimethylacetamide were used as the additive and solvent, respectively. The effects of the PEG concentration in the dope solution as an additive on the cross sections and inner and outer surface morphologies, permeability, and separation performance of the hollow fibers were examined. The mean pore size, pore size distribution, and mean roughness of both the inner and outer surfaces of the produced hollow fibers were determined by atomic force microscopy. Also, the mechanical properties of the hollow-fiber membranes were investigated. UF experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP; K-90, Mw = 360 kDa). From the results, we found that the PVC/PS hollow-fiber membranes had two layers with a fingerlike structure. These two layers were changed from a wide and long to a thin and short morphology with increasing PEG concentration. A novel and until now undescribed shape of the nodules in the outer surfaces, which was denoted as a sea-waves shape, was observed. The outer and inner pore sizes both increased with increasing PEG concentration. The water permeation flux of the hollow fibers increased from 104 to 367 L m-2 h-1 bar -1) at higher PEG concentrations. The PVP rejection reached the highest value at a PEG concentration of 4 wt %, whereas at higher values (from 4 to 9 wt %), the rejection decreased. The same trend was found also for the tensile stress at break, Young's modulus, and elongation at break of the hollow fibers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Al-Baghdadi J.A.A.,Technical College Baghdad | Chong A.K.,University of Southern Queensland | Milburn P.,Griffith University | Newsham-West R.,Griffith University
IEEE ICSIPA 2013 - IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications | Year: 2013

The intensity of research to study the functioning of the human foot and the body-weight loading impact on its performance has increased considerably in the last five years. This type of research is particularly important for injured or deformed foot. Low-cost HD video cameras are becoming popular for capturing accurate three-dimensional (3D) model of the human body parts and they have shown to be useful for the study of the human foot during walking. A research was carried out to determine whether continuous capture of the 3D models of the foot during walking can assist in the understanding of the loading characteristics of the foot. This paper provides discussion on the methods used to correlate the video-captured 3D model of the foot and the force plate recording of the foot-loading during walking. The discussion covers the test methods and the results of the study. The studies show that the techniques developed produce precise correlation between foot loading and the video-captured 3D models and these data could be used for the mentioned applications. © 2013 IEEE.

Chong A.K.,University of Southern Queensland | Al-Baghdadi J.A.A.,Technical College Baghdad
IEEE ICSIPA 2013 - IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications | Year: 2013

Recently, off-the-shelf HD video cameras are recognized low-cost video capture for the study of human movements associating with sport training, sport performance evaluation, physical impairment evaluation and rehabilitation evaluation. The data required for these applications are usually dimensions, 3D distance, angular elements and speed of movement of the various body components such as the head, trunk and limbs. More complex data include isoline plots, profile and cross-section and 3D textured models of these body parts. This paper focuses on the developed techniques that are used for acquiring high accuracy data for these applications. In the paper, the results of three current case studies are provided to show the quality of the videogrammetric acquired data. The studies show that the techniques developed produce high accuracy data for various applications in movement research. © 2013 IEEE.

Al-Saady M.H.,Technical College Baghdad | Al-Saify K.M.K.,Technical College Baghdad | Al-Abdullah Y.F.,Al Shatra Technical Institute
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2010

This paper presents, for the first time, a new developed concept for design of punch pass profile used in backward-extrusion of hollow rods. The new design criteria proposes a "Linearity" of the Homogeneous Successive Strain Increment Ratios (LHSIR) of the deformed material, instead of the "Constancy" concept (CHSIR) found in literature, as the tool base to generate the profile. The developed profiles were evaluated numerically to assess their relative pressure ratios as the main parameter for performance checking adopting the well-known Upper Bound Approach (UBA). A further developed aspect for the velocity field proposition is successfully made to carry out the necessary tedious computations. 12 different samples of commercial tool steel were CNC-manufactured, heat treated and tested to extrude typical hollow rods, from lead alloy, for sake of comparison and validity assessment. The major conclusion comes out of this work claims that a small variance in the classical constancy criteria of the punch design is very sensitive to change the expected levels of the relative pressure ratios of the extrusion process. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010.

Tolephih M.H.,Technical College Baghdad | Mahmood H.M.,Technical College Baghdad | Abdullah E.T.,Technical College Baghdad
AES-ATEMA International Conference Series - Advances and Trends in Engineering Materials and their Applications | Year: 2011

A new tool geometry was used to achieve friction stir spot welding (FSSW) in which the shoulder was designed separately from the rotating pin, and in order to examine weldment strength through the modified tool, a lap joints of AA2024 aluminum alloy plate 1 mm thick were welded successfully by using 6 mm pin diameter and varying process parameters (rotational speeds, tool nose geometry, and depth of tool penetration in the lower welded plate). Experimental tests indicate that the maximum average tensile shear load was 3100 N at the best selected condition. Microstructure examination and micro hardness test along the spot zones were investigated as well as measuring pin penetration load. Visual inspection of the welded spot surface shows a good appearance and clean surface and there is no need to any mechanical post treatment. © 2011, Advanced Engineering Solutions.

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