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Toronto, Canada

Samavati N.,University of Toronto | Velec M.,Techna Institute | Brock K.,University of Michigan
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

Deformable image registration (DIR) has been extensively studied over the past two decades due to its essential role in many image-guided interventions (IGI). IGI demands a highly accurate registration that maintains its accuracy across the entire region of interest. This work evaluates the improvement in accuracy and consistency by refining the results of Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based DIR algorithm. A hybrid DIR algorithm is proposed based on, a biomechanical model-based DIR algorithm and a refinement step based on a B-spline intensity-based algorithm. Inhale and exhale reconstructions of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) lung images from 31 patients were initially registered using the biomechanical DIR by modeling contact surface between the lungs and the chest cavity. The resulting deformations were then refined using the intensity-based algorithm to reduce any residual uncertainties. Important parameters in the intensity-based algorithm, including grid spacing, number of pyramids, and regularization coefficient, were optimized on 10 randomly-chosen patients (out of 31). Target registration error (TRE) was calculated by measuring the Euclidean distance of common anatomical points on both images after registration. For each patient a minimum of 30 points/lung were used. Grid spacing of 8 mm, 5 levels of grid pyramids, and regularization coefficient of 3.0 were found to provide optimal results on 10 randomly chosen patients. Overall the entire patient population (n = 31), the hybrid method resulted in mean ± SD (90th%) TRE of 1.5 ± 1.4 (2.9) mm compared to 3.1 ± 1.9 (5.6) using biomechanical DIR and 2.6 ± 2.5 (6.1) using intensity-based DIR alone. The proposed hybrid biomechanical modeling intensity based algorithm is a promising DIR technique which could be used in various IGI procedures. The current investigation shows the efficacy of this approach for the registration of 4DCT images of the lungs with average accuracy of 1.5 mm. © 2015 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Siddique S.,Princess Margaret Cancer Center | Siddique S.,University of Toronto | Fiume E.,Princess Margaret Cancer Center | Jaffray D.A.,University of Toronto | Jaffray D.A.,Techna Institute
Medical Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose: X-ray fluoroscopy remains an important imaging modality in a number of image-guided procedures due to its real-time nature and excellent spatial detail. However, the radiation dose delivered raises concerns about its use particularly in lengthy treatment procedures (>0.5 h). The authors have previously presented an algorithm that employs feedback of geometric uncertainty to control dose while maintaining a desired targeting uncertainty during fluoroscopic tracking of fiducials. The method was tested using simulations of motion against controlled noise fields. In this paper, the authors embody the previously reported method in a physical prototype and present changes to the controller required to function in a practical setting.Methods: The metric for feedback used in this study is based on the trace of the covariance of the state of the system, tr(C). The state is defined here as the 2D location of a fiducial on a plane parallel to the detector. A relationship between this metric and the tube current is first developed empirically. This relationship is extended to create a manifold that incorporates a latent variable representing the estimated background attenuati on. The manifold is then used within the controller to dynamically adjust the tube current and maintain a specified targeting uncertainty. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an acrylic sphere (1.6 mm in diameter) was tracked at tube currents ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 mA (0.033 s) at a fixed energy of 80 kVp. The images were acquired on a Varian Paxscan 4030A (2048 ×1536 pixels, ∼100 cm source-to-axis distance, ∼160 cm source-to-detector distance). The sphere was tracked using a particle filter under two background conditions: (1) uniform sheets of acrylic and (2) an acrylic wedge. The measured tr(C) was used in conjunction with a learned manifold to modulate the tube current in order to maintain a specified uncertainty as the sphere traversed regions of varying thickness corresponding to the acrylic sheets in the background.Results: With feedback engaged, the tracking error was found to correlate well with the specified targeting uncertainty. Tracking of the fiducial was found to be robust to changes in the attenuation presented by the varying background conditions. For a desired uncertainty of 5.0 mm, comparison of the feedback framework with a comparable system employing fixed exposure demonstrated dose savings of 29%.Conclusions: This work presents a relation between a state descriptor, tr(C), the x-ray tube current used, and an estimate of the background attenuation. This relation is leveraged to modulate the tube current in order to maintain a desired geometric uncertainty during fluoroscopy. The authors work demonstrates the use of the method in a real x-ray fluoroscopy system with physical motion against varying backgrounds. The method offers potential savings in imaging dose to patients and staff while maintaining tracking uncertainty during fluoroscopy-guided treatment procedures. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source

McIntosh C.,University of Toronto | McIntosh C.,Techna Institute | Purdie T.G.,University of Toronto | Purdie T.G.,Techna Institute
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging | Year: 2016

Radiation therapy is an integral part of cancer treatment, but to date it remains highly manual. Plans are created through optimization of dose volume objectives that specify intent to minimize, maximize, or achieve a prescribed dose level to clinical targets and organs. Optimization is NP-hard, requiring highly iterative and manual initialization procedures. We present a proof-of-concept for a method to automatically infer the radiation dose directly from the patient's treatment planning image based on a database of previous patients with corresponding clinical treatment plans. Our method uses regression forests augmented with density estimation over the most informative features to learn an automatic atlas-selection metric that is tailored to dose prediction. We validate our approach on 276 patients from 3 clinical treatment plan sites (whole breast, breast cavity, and prostate), with an overall dose prediction accuracies of 78.68%, 64.76%, 86.83% under the Gamma metric. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Lin Q.,Techna Institute | Lin Q.,University of Toronto | Lin Q.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Jin C.S.,Techna Institute | And 7 more authors.
Small | Year: 2014

The abilities to deliver siRNA to its intended action site and assess the delivery efficiency are challenges for current RNAi therapy, where effective siRNA delivery will join force with patient genetic profiling to achieve optimal treatment outcome. Imaging could become a critical enabler to maximize RNAi efficacy in the context of tracking siRNA delivery, rational dosimetry and treatment planning. Several imaging modalities have been used to visualize nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery but rarely did they guide treatment planning. We report a multimodal theranostic lipid-nanoparticle, HPPS(NIR)-chol-siRNA, which has a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent core, enveloped by phospholipid monolayer, intercalated with siRNA payloads, and constrained by apoA-I mimetic peptides to give ultra-small particle size (<30 nm). Using fluorescence imaging, we demonstrated its cytosolic delivery capability for both NIR-core and dye-labeled siRNAs and its structural integrity in mice through intravenous administration, validating the usefulness of NIR-core as imaging surrogate for non-labeled therapeutic siRNAs. Next, we validated the targeting specificity of HPPS(NIR)-chol-siRNA to orthotopic tumor using sequential four-steps (in vivo, in situ, ex vivo and frozen-tissue) fluorescence imaging. The image co-registration of computed tomography and fluorescence molecular tomography enabled non-invasive assessment and treatment planning of siRNA delivery into the orthotopic tumor, achieving efficacious RNAi therapy. Image-guided treatment planning of target specific RNAi therapeutics by HPPS(NIR)-chol-siRNA. A multimodal theranostic HDL-like nanoparticle is developed for in vivo non-invasive assessment of siRNA accumulation in an orthotopic prostate tumor by tracing the NIR fluorescent surrogate using image co-registration of computed tomography and fluorescence molecular tomography, which provides a useful mean for real-time tracking siRNA delivery, rational dosimetry, and treatment planning for efficacious RNAi therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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