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Perez-Balibrea S.,Tech Lab Group | Moreno D.A.,Tech Lab Group | Garcia-Viguera C.,Tech Lab Group
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In order to increase the concentrations of bioactive compounds in broccoli sprouts, exogenous elicitors: methionine, tryptophan, chitosan, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were sprayed at different concentrations during germination. The effects of the elicitors on vitamin C, phenolic compounds and glucosinolate levels were assessed in 3, 5 and 7-days old seedlings. The application of 200, 300 μM SA and 0.01% chitosan induced increases, by 26%, 18% and 54%, respectively in the content of vitamin C in 5 days old broccoli sprouts. Flavonoid concentration was also increased by 31% and 33% after 10 μM MeJA and 100 μM SA treatments, respectively in 7 days old broccoli sprouts. In contrast, methionine or tryptophan solutions did not positively affect the vitamin C or the phenolic compounds in the sprouts. The individual classes of glucosinolates respond differently to the elicitor treatment. Methionine, a sulphur-containing amino acid, applied at 5 mM, significantly increased, by 32%, the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. However, indole glucosinolates presented a significant response to the induction with tryptophan, SA or MeJA treatments. Tryptophan at 10 mM concentration augmented by 1.8-fold the indole glucosinolate concentration in 7 days old broccoli sprouts, and the treatments of 100 μM SA and 25 μM MeJA also induced significantly higher amounts of indole glucosinolates (by 33% and 51%, respectively) in 7 days old treated broccoli sprouts. Therefore, the application of elicitors could be a useful tool for improving the bioactive metabolites in broccoli sprouts for fresh consumption or functional ingredients for nutraceuticals foods. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Verrall N.G.,Tech Lab Group
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps | Year: 2011

Alcohol consumption is a part of military history. The impacts in terms of both short-term and long-term consequences require modern militaries to develop and instigate a duty of care for its personnel, which informs the military's 'cradle to the grave' approach in addressing alcohol consumption and other risky health behaviors (e.g. smoking, driving, sex, drugs, obesity, etc.). Thus, in recent years there have been numerous studies that have either focused on, or included, measures of alcohol consumption among various military populations. Therefore, a synthesis of this research is warranted in order to provide a contemporary understanding of this topic. This review addresses the military research regarding alcohol consumption. It reviews the methodological issues associated with the breadth of research, as well as commenting on a range of factors that need to be considered when interpreting and comparing the different research studies; for example, (1) when comparing findings across military to civilian and pan-military populations, (2) deployment-related research, (3) military groups at risk, and (4) the impact on readiness, operational effectiveness and force sustainability.


Vautard F.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Ozcan S.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Meyer H.,Tech Lab Group
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2012

Carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. The increase of the oxygen atomic content was much sharper, the surface chemistry was better controlled, and the tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly with the thermo-chemical surface treatment. The thermo-chemical surface treatment created a topography which amplitudes were under 10 nm, thus creating some mechanical interlocking with the matrix. The electro-chemical surface treatment did not generate such a topography. The improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Omidinia E.,Tech Lab Group | Shadjou N.,Tech Lab Group | Hasanzadeh M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2013

Fe3O4-graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was used as a new magnetic nanosensor for determination of phenylalanine (Phe). It was found that Fe3O4-GO has been stably absorbed on GC electrode modified by simple technique. The cyclic voltammograms of the modified electrode in an aqueous solution displayed a pair ofwell-defined, stable and irreversible reductive/oxidation redox systems. The apparent electron transfer rate constant (ks) and transfer coefficient (α)were determined by cyclic voltammetry andwere approximately 9.3 s-1 and 0.67, respectively. The modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of Phe at an unusually positive potential in buffer solution. This nanosensor also displayed fast response time, high sensitivity, lowdetection limit and had a remarkably positive potential oxidation of Phe that decreased the effect of interferences in analysis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sires I.,Tech Lab Group | Low C.T.J.,Tech Lab Group | Ponce-de-Leon C.,Tech Lab Group | Walsh F.C.,Tech Lab Group
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2010

Highly crystalline, nanostructured, three-dimensional β-PbO2 coatings were successfully obtained by galvanostatic deposition from baths containing aqueous lead(II) and methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H). This constitutes a much more environmentally friendly methodology compared to plating of β-PbO2 in HNO3. The deposits exhibited high quality and good adherence. The crystallite size was in the range 20-30 nm and AFM imaging revealed very uniform, rough deposits (i.e., 255-275 nm rms). The oxidative destruction of Methyl Orange azo dye was studied by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs). An electro-Fenton process with a high surface area carbon-felt cathode performed better than the single anodic oxidation. Rapid and complete decolorisation was achieved following pseudo first-order kinetics. The stability of the β-PbO2 electrodes during the electrolyses was also demonstrated. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hasanzadeh M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Shadjou N.,Tech Lab Group | Omidinia E.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2013

Magnetic (Fe2O3) mobile crystalline material-41 (MCM-41) was prepared and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. Due to the large surface area (1213 m2g-1) and remarkable electrocatalytic properties of MCM-41-Fe2O3, the MCM-41-Fe2O3 modified glassy carbon electrode (MCM-41-Fe2O3/GCE) exhibits potent electrocatalytic activity toward the electro-oxidation of amino acids. MCM-41-Fe2O3/GCE brings new capabilities for electrochemical sensing by combining the advantages of Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles and MCM-41 with very large surface area. Cyclic voltammetry, hydrodynamic amperometry and flow injection analysis used to determination of amino acids at higher concentration range. Fast response time, excellent catalytic activity, and ease of preparation are the advantages of the proposed amino acid sensor. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Qi J.,Tech Lab Group | Buechley L.,Tech Lab Group
TEI'10 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction | Year: 2010

We have developed an interactive pop-up book called Electronic Popables to explore paper-based computing. Our book integrates traditional pop-up mechanisms with thin, flexible, paper-based electronics and the result is an artifact that looks and functions much like an ordinary pop-up, but has added elements of dynamic interactivity. This paper introduces the book and, through it, a library of paper-based sensors and a suite of paper-electronics construction techniques. We also reflect on the unique and under-explored opportunities that arise from combining material experimentation, artistic design, and engineering. Copyright 2010 ACM.


Buechley L.,Tech Lab Group | Hill B.M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
DIS 2010 - Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems | Year: 2010

This paper examines the distribution, adoption, and evolution of an open-source toolkit we developed called the LilyPad Arduino. We track the two-year history of the kit and its user community from the time the kit was commercially introduced, in October of 2007, to November of 2009. Using sales data, publicly available project documentation and surveys, we explore the relationship between the LilyPad and its adopters. We investigate the community of developers who has adopted the kit - -paying special attention to gender - -explore what people are building with it, describe how user feedback impacted the development of the kit and examine how and why people are contributing their own LilyPad-inspired tools back to the community. What emerges is a portrait of a new technology and a new engineering/design community in co-evolution. © 2010 ACM.


Haddad J.J.,Tech Lab Group | Hanbali L.B.,Tech Lab Group
Protein and Peptide Letters | Year: 2014

In mammalian cells, responses to hypoxia at the molecular transduction level are hallmarks of adaptation and survival under oxygen deprivation conditions. In this study, the protein expression patterns of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are investigated under hypoxia in primary cortical neurons and in a model of organotypic hippocampal slices in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Abrupt fluctuations in MAPK expression can occur during anoxia, hypoxia, and relative hyperoxic shifts (e.g., reoxygenation); therefore, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation states could be crucial factors in metabolic reorganization for withstanding anaerobiosis. Whole cellular protein extracts were analyzed for the phosphorylation of MAPKp38 and MAPKERK-1/2 (p44/p42) at threonine and tyrosine residues (Thr 180/Tyr182) at different time periods of hypoxic exposure relative to a fixed normoxia control. The phospho-MAPKp38 (p-MAPKp38) to MAPKp38 relative unit ratio revealed that MAPKp38 expression increased in cortical neurons after 5 and 10 min, but decreased abruptly afterwards (20 - 120 min). The expression of phospho-MAPKERK-1 (p-MAPKERK-1/p44), however, decreased whereas that of p-MAPKERK-2/p42 increased compared to normoxia. In rat hippocampal slices (RHS), the expression of p-MAPKp38 was slightly but significantly higher in hypoxia, whereas the expression of p-MAPKERK-2/p42 increased and that of p-MAPKERK- 1/p44 was intangible. This indicates that in cortical neurons hypoxia differentially upregulated the phosphorylation activation states of MAPKp38 and MAPKERK-1/2 (p44/p42), whereas in the RHS model MAPKp38 and MAPKERK-2/p42, but not MAPKERK-1/p44, phosphorylation states were upregulated in response to hypoxia. The neuroimmunological molecular patterns of the differential MAPK phosphorylation in vitro and ex vivo in response to hypoxic shift indicated a significant role for these kinases in cellular adaptation to oxygen deprivation, and thereby may identify physiologic and neuroprotective responsive signaling cofactors and pathways in cortical and hippocampal neurons during hypoxia. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Tsilfidis A.,Tech Lab Group | Mourjopoulos J.,Tech Lab Group
Signal Processing | Year: 2010

The suppression of late reverberation by spectral subtraction tends to degrade disproportionally low-level signal regions and signal transients. This work proposes two novel relaxation criteria that can constrain such problems in a signal-dependent fashion. These criteria were found to improve the performance of state-of-the-art late reverberation suppression algorithms when used in conjunction with a perceptually motivated non linear filtering stage. Objective results indicate that the proposed method is robust over a wide range of practical reverberation scenarios. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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