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Loch Garman, Ireland

Teagasc is the semi-state authority in the Republic of Ireland responsible for research and development, training and advisory services in the agri-food sector. The official title of the body is Teagasc - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority. In 1988 Teagasc succeeded An Foras Talúntais/The Agricultural Institute which was responsible for agricultural research, and An Chomhairle Oiliúna Talmhaíochta/The Agricultural Training Council which was responsible for education and advisory services. Wikipedia.

University College Cork, Alimentary Health Ltd. and Teagasc | Date: 2013-03-27

The current invention provides use of a CLA-producing bacterium for the in vivo conversion in the gut of polyunsaturated fatty acids to CLA. The CLA-producing bacterium is selected from one or more of the group consisting of propionibacteria, lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci, and bifidobacteria.

The human intestinal microbiota is one of the most densely populated ecosystems on Earth, containing up to 10 ( 13) bacteria/g and in some respects can be considered an organ itself given its role in human health. Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant replicating entities on the planet and thrive wherever their bacterial hosts exist. They undoubtedly influence the dominant microbial populations in many ecosystems including the human intestine. Within this setting, lysogeny appears to be the preferred life cycle, presumably due to nutrient limitations and lack of suitable hosts protected in biofilms, hence the predator/prey dynamic observed in many ecosystems is absent. On the other hand, free virulent phages in the gut are more common among sufferers of intestinal diseases and have been shown to increase with antibiotic usage. Many of these phages evolve from prophages of intestinal bacteria and emerge under conditions where their bacterial hosts encounter stress suggesting that prophages can significantly alter the microbial community composition. Based on these observations, we propose the "community shuffling" model which hypothesizes that prophage induction contributes to intestinal dysbiosis by altering the ratio of symbionts to pathobionts, enabling pathobiont niche reoccupation. The consequences of the increased phage load on the mammalian immune system are also addressed. While this is an area of intestinal biology which has received little attention, this review assembles evidence from the literature which supports the role of phages as one of the biological drivers behind the composition of the gut microbiota. Source

Treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics can have a detrimental impact on the commensal bacteria present in the gut. The extensive nature of the collateral damage caused by such compounds has been revealed more starkly than ever before through the application of high throughput DNA sequencing-based technologies to investigate resulting microbial populations. Here we review the findings of such studies and discuss the strategies available to minimize such negative impacts. Source

The colonization, development and maturation of the newborn gastrointestinal tract that begins immediately at birth and continues for two years, is modulated by numerous factors including mode of delivery, feeding regime, maternal diet/weight, probiotic and prebiotic use and antibiotic exposure pre-, peri- and post-natally. While in the past, culture-based approaches were used to assess the impact of these factors on the gut microbiota, these have now largely been replaced by culture-independent DNA-based approaches and most recently, high-throughput sequencing-based forms thereof. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research into the modulatory factors that impact on the acquisition and development of the infant gut microbiota, to outline the knowledge recently gained through the use of culture-independent techniques and, in particular, highlight advances in high-throughput sequencing and how these technologies have, and will continue to, fill gaps in our knowledge with respect to the human intestinal microbiota. Source

Griffiths B.S.,Teagasc | Philippot L.,CNRS Agroecology Lab
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Soil is increasingly under environmental pressures that alter its capacity to fulfil essential ecosystem services. To maintain these crucial soil functions, it is important to know how soil microorganisms respond to disturbance or environmental change. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the resistance and resilience (stability) of soil microbial communities and discuss the underlying mechanisms of soil biological stability together with the factors affecting it. Biological stability is not solely owing to the structure or diversity of the microbial community but is linked to a range of other vegetation and soil properties including aggregation and substrate quality. We suggest that resistance and resilience are governed by soil physico-chemical structure through its effect on microbial community composition and physiology, but that there is no general response to disturbance because stability is particular to the disturbance and soil history. Soil stability results from a combination of biotic and abiotic soil characteristics and so could provide a quantitative measure of soil health that can be translated into practice. Interactions between soil physico-chemical properties and microbial species functional characteristics are key determinants of soil biological stability (resistance and resilience). © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Source

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