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Palomo L.,Teaching and Research Unit | Felix-Redondo F.-J.,Villanueva Norte Health Center | Lozano-Mera L.,Urbano 1 Health Center | Perez-Castan J.-F.,Teaching Unit | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of General Practice | Year: 2014

Background: The influence of socioeconomic development is often disregarded in epidemiological studies into the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Aim: To analyse the relationship between major cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic indicators. Design and setting: Cross-sectional, population-wide study in primary care practices in the health area of Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. Method: A total of 2833 people aged 25-79 years (mean age 51.2 years), representative of the population, participated in the study. The prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for diabetes, arterial hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, and sedentary behaviour, according to level of education and employment status. Results: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors related to the level of education and employment status. Females who had not studied at university had a higher risk of obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 4.2), smoking (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.7), and sedentary behaviour (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9) than females with a university education. Males who had not studied at university showed an increased risk of smoking (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 3.1), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.4), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.2), and obesity (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3) than males with a university education. The risk of obesity was higher in unemployed females than those in paid employment (OR =1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.9), but they showed a lower risk of smoking (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.9). Conclusion :The study results confirm an inverse association between the level of education and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Public health studies and interventions are needed to understand this association and develop interventions targeted at the population that is at greatest risk. © British Journal of General Practice. Source

Yates Z.,University of Newcastle | Lucock M.,University of Newcastle | Veysey M.,Teaching and Research Unit | Choi J.-H.,University of Newcastle
Journal of Nutrition and Health | Year: 2016

Purpose: The initiation of mandatory folic acid fortification using pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PteGlu) has reduced the rate of congenital malformations. However, it also appears to be responsible for several adverse effects, including increased cancer incidence. This may be related to physicho-chemical characteristics of PteGlu. This study examines the potential effect of high concentrations of PteGlu on a population subjected to mandatory folic acid fortification using an in vitro model. Methods: Caco-2 (colorectal cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer) cell lines were cultured at 6 different PteGlu concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 50, 250, and 500μg/ml) for 6 days. Cell growth was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. The genotype of dihydrofolate reductase 19bp deletion/insertion (DHFR 19-del) was also scored in cell lines using a restriction fragment length polymorphism technique to examine whether genetic variations may factor in cell proliferation. Results: PteGlu exhibited differential growth promoting properties between cell lines. Caco-2 cells did not show a significant growth difference at low concentrations compared to control, however, at higher concentrations, the growth showed a contrasting trend in the early experimental period, while MCF7 showed enhanced cell growth at all concentrations. The DHFR 19-del genotype differed in the two cell lines. Conclusions: Altered response to PteGlu by Caco-2 and MCF7 may reflect a tissue specific disease aetiology or genotype specific differential enzyme activity, for example by DHFR, to critical levels of PteGlu. As folic acid fortification is a blanket intervention, and DHFR and other enzyme activities vary between individuals, PteGlu intake may have an as yet undefined effect on health. These findings may be relevant when considering mandatory folic acid fortification for disease prevention. © 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society. Source

Beckett E.L.,University of Newcastle | Beckett E.L.,CSIRO | Martin C.,University of Newcastle | Duesing K.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are linked to disease and are potential biomarkers. Vitamin D may modulate miRNA profiles, and vitamin D status has been linked to risk of disease, including cardiovascular disease and cancers. We hypothesise that genotypic variance influences these relationships. We examined the correlations between vitamin D intake and circulating levels of the miRNAs let-7a/b, and the involvement of two common vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, BsmI and ApaI. Methods: Two hundred participants completed food frequency and supplement questionnaires, and were assayed for circulating let-7b expression by qPCR. Polymorphisms were detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR. Results: let-7b expression negatively correlated with vitamin D intake (rs = -0.20, p = 0.005). The magnitude and direction of correlation were maintained in the presence of the BsmI restriction site (rs = -0.27, p = 0.0005). However, in the absence of BsmI restriction site, the direction of the correlation was reversed (rs = +0.319, p = 0.0497). These correlations were significantly different (z-score = 2.64, p = 0.0085). The correlation between vitamin D intake and let-7a was only significant in those without the ApaI restriction site. Conclusions: The correlation between vitamin D intake and let-7a/b expression in this cohort varies with VDR genotype. This study highlights the importance of considering underlying genotypic variance in miRNA expression studies and in nutritional epigenetics generally. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Beckett E.L.,University of Newcastle | Beckett E.L.,CSIRO | Yates Z.,University of Newcastle | Veysey M.,Teaching and Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2014

A growing number of studies in recent years have highlighted the importance of molecular nutrition as a potential determinant of health and disease. In particular, the ability of micronutrients to regulate the final expression of gene products via modulation of transcription and translation is now being recognised. Modulation of microRNA (miRNA) by nutrients is one pathway by which nutrition may mediate gene expression. MiRNA, a class of non-coding RNA, can directly regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. In addition, miRNA are able to indirectly influence gene expression potential at the transcriptional level via modulation of the function of components of the epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation and histone modifications). These mechanisms interact to form a complex, bi-directional regulatory circuit modulating gene expression. Disease-specific miRNA profiles have been identified in multiple disease states, including those with known dietary risk factors. Therefore, the role that nutritional components, in particular, vitamins and minerals, play in the modulation of miRNA profiles, and consequently health and disease, is increasingly being investigated, and as such is a timely subject for review. The recently posited potential for viable exogenous miRNA to enter human blood circulation from food sources adds another interesting dimension to the potential for dietary miRNA to contribute to gene modulation. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lucock M.,University of Newcastle | Yates Z.,University of Newcastle | Martin C.,University of Newcastle | Choi J.-H.,University of Newcastle | And 5 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule that regulates blood flow and pressure. It is synthesised from cysteine via cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. We examined whether thiol precursors of H2S, transsulphuration pathway gene variants (CBS-844ins68 and CTH-G1364T) and key B-vitamin cofactors might be critical determinants of hypertension in an elderly Australian population. An elderly Australian retirement village population (n = 228; age 65-96 years, 91 males and 137 females) was assessed for the prevalence of two transsulphuration pathway-related variant genes associated with cysteine synthesis and hence H2S production. Thiols were determined by HPLC, genotypes by PCR and dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire. Homocysteine levels were statistically higher in the hypertensive phenotype (p = 0.0399), but there was no difference for cysteine or glutathione. Using nominal logistic regression, cysteine, CTH-G1364T genotype, dietary synthetic folate and vitamin B 6 predicted clinical phenotype (determined as above/below 140/90 mm Hg) and then only in female subjects (p = 0.0239, 0.0178, 0.0249 and 0.0371, respectively). Least-squares regression supports cysteine being highly inversely predictive of diastolic blood pressure: p and r 2 values <0.0001 and 0.082; 0.0409 and 0.046; and <0.0001 and 0.113 for all subjects, males and females, respectively. Additionally, CTH-G1364T genotype predicts diastolic blood pressure in males (p = 0.0217; r 2 = 0.083), but contrasts with observations for females. Overall, analyses, including stepwise regression, suggest cysteine, dietary natural and synthetic folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and both genetic variants (CTH-C1364T and CBS-844ins68) are all aetiologically relevant in the regulation of blood pressure. Hydrogen sulphide is a vasorelaxant gasotransmitter with characteristics similar to nitric oxide. Cysteine and the G1364T and 844ins68 variants of the cystathionine γ-lyase and cystathionine β-synthase genes, respectively, are the biological determinants of H2S synthesis, and all three are shown here to influence the hypertensive phenotype. Additionally, B-vitamin cofactors for these three enzymes may also be important determinants of blood pressure. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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