Prunier J.G.,University Paul Sabatier |
Dubut V.,Aix - Marseille University |
Chikhi L.,Teacher Training Institute |
Blanchet S.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory
Methods in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2017
Pairwise measures of neutral genetic differentiation are supposed to contain information about past and ongoing dispersal events and are thus often used as dependent variables in correlative analyses to elucidate how neutral genetic variation is affected by landscape connectivity. However, spatial heterogeneity in the intensity of genetic drift, stemming from variations in population sizes, may inflate variance in measures of genetic differentiation and lead to erroneous or incomplete interpretations in terms of connectivity. Here, we tested the efficiency of two distance-based metrics designed to capture the unique influence of spatial heterogeneity in local drift on genetic differentiation. These metrics are easily computed from estimates of effective population sizes or from environmental proxies for local carrying capacities, and allow us to introduce the hypothesis of Spatial-Heterogeneity-in-Effective-Population-Sizes (SHNe). SHNe can be tested in a way similar to isolation-by-distance or isolation-by-resistance within the classical landscape genetics hypothesis-testing framework. We used simulations under various models of population structure to investigate the reliability of these metrics to quantify the unique contribution of SHNe in explaining patterns of genetic differentiation. We then applied these metrics to an empirical genetic dataset obtained for a freshwater fish (Gobio occitaniae). Simulations showed that SHNe explained up to 60% of variance in genetic differentiation (measured as Fst) in the absence of gene flow, and up to 20% when migration rates were as high as 0.10. Furthermore, one of the two metrics was particularly robust to uncertainty in the estimation of effective population sizes (or proxies for carrying capacity). In the empirical dataset, the effect of SHNe on spatial patterns of Fst was five times higher than that of isolation-by-distance, uniquely contributing to 41% of variance in pairwise Fst. Taking the influence of SHNe into account also allowed decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio, and improving the upper estimate of effective dispersal distance. We conclude that the use of SHNe metrics in landscape genetics will substantially improve the understanding of evolutionary drivers of genetic variation, providing substantial information as to the actual drivers of patterns of genetic differentiation in addition to traditional measures of Euclidean distance or landscape resistance. © 2017 British Ecological Society.
Hendriana H.,Teacher Training Institute
World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education | Year: 2017
This descriptive study aims to find out high school teachers' hard and soft skills in implementing innovative character-based learning of mathematics. The subjects of the study were 17 high school mathematics teachers who deliver innovative mathematics lessons with six postgraduate students from STKIP Siliwangi in lesson study activities. Data were gathered through observation, interviews and document study of the participating teachers. In addition, tests and questionnaires were also administered to the students. The findings revealed that: 1) mathematical hard skills and soft skills of the students who learn using value and character-based innovative learning are better than those of students learning through conventional learning; 2) mathematics teachers' hard skills and soft skills are generally in the medium category; 3) teachers face some difficulties in implementing value- and character-based innovative learning; 4) there is high association (correlation) between teachers' hard skills and soft skills; and 5) further education, training, workshop, and lesson study activities are useful for improving mathematics teachers' hard and soft skills. © 2017 WIETE.
Guliyev V.,Ahi Evran University |
Guliyev V.,Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of NAS of Azerbaijan |
Akbulut A.,Ahi Evran University |
Mammadov Y.,Teacher Training Institute
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2013
In the article we consider the fractional maximal operatorMα, 0 ≤ α < Q on any Carnot groupG (i.e., nilpotent stratified Lie group) in the generalized Morrey spacesMp,φ(G), where Q is the homogeneous dimension ofG. We find the conditions on the pair φ1, φ2) which ensures the boundedness of the operator Ma from one generalized Morrey space Mp,φ1(G) to another Mq,φ2(G),1
Kampourakis K.,Teacher Training Institute |
Vayena E.,University of Zürich |
Mitropoulou C.,Erasmus Medical Center |
Van Schaik R.H.,Erasmus Medical Center |
And 3 more authors.
EMBO Reports | Year: 2014
Recent advances in genomics and sequencing technology herald the advent of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical practice. Yet, while science and technology have progressed rapidly, legal, social and ethical challenges remain to be resolved. © 2014 The Authors.
Calculator S.,University of New Hampshire |
Diaz-Caneja Sela P.,Teacher Training Institute
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2015
Background: This investigation details procedures used to teach enhanced natural gestures (ENGs) and illustrates its use with three students with Angelman syndrome (AS). Materials and Methods: Themes were extracted, using a process of content analysis, to organize individuals' feedback pertaining to previous versions of the instructional programme. A 'B' case study design was then employed to follow administration of the modified programme with three students in Madrid, Spain. Programme impact was examined relative to changes in each student's uses of ENGs spontaneously and in response to non-specific verbal prompts, along with team members' responses to a questionnaire designed to evaluate programme efficacy. Results: Two of the three students demonstrated particularly rapid and spontaneous uses of their ENGs. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback from teams supported programme efficacy for all three students. Conclusions: The approach appears viable for individuals with AS and has implications for individuals presenting other diagnoses as well. Additional educational/clinical and research implications are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tuijn S.,Knowledge Center |
Janssens F.,University of Twente |
Robben P.,Knowledge Center |
Robben P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2012
Objectives: In the scientific literature about reliability, the main approach to increasing reliability seems to involve increasing the number of observers and improving the instrument used. Other aspects for improving reliability - like the training of raters - seem to receive less notice. It is worth asking whether this technical approach could be complemented by training the user of the instrument. A systematic meta-analytical review of the research literature was performed to answer this question and examine the effectiveness of planned interventions for improving interrater reliability of health care professionals. Method: The databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Omega and PsycINFO were searched. The inclusion criteria were met by 57 studies. Details extracted from the studies included the study design, the number of observers and the number of observed cases, the intervention, the type of instrument (whether or not it was highly technical), and statistical information about the agreement before and after the intervention. Interventions were categorized into three groups: training of professionals, improving the diagnostic instrument and a combination of training and improving the instrument. A meta-analysis was performed by means of linear regression. Results: The interventions were arranged according to their effectiveness in improving the diagnostic instrument (mean change: β = 0.13), training combined with improving the instrument (mean change: β = 0.10) and training (mean change: β = 0.09). Conclusion: On average, although all types of interventions are effective, improving the diagnostic instrument seems to be the most effective. Especially when highly technical instruments were concerned, improvement proved to be very effective (β = 0.52). Because instrumental variables constitute a major source of error, improving the instrument is an important approach. However, this review offers solid arguments that can complement the literature and practice, with a focus on training the user of the instrument. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Huleihil M.,Teacher Training Institute
Physics Research International | Year: 2015
The irreversible heat engine is reconsidered with a general heat transfer law. Three criteria known in the literature - power, power density, and efficient power - are redefined in terms of the work criteria function (WCF), a concept introduced in this study. The formulation enabled the suggestion and analysis of a unique criterion - the efficient power density (which accounts for the efficiency and power density). Practically speaking, the efficient power and the efficient power density could be defined on any order based on the WCF. The applicability of the WCF is illustrated for the Newtonian heat transfer law (n=1) and for the radiative law (n=4). The importance of WCF is twofold: it gives an explicit design and educational tool to analyze and to display graphically the different criteria side by side and thus helps in design process. Finally, the criteria were compared and some conclusions were drawn. © 2014 Mahmoud Huleihil.
Minenko P.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu | Year: 2012
Purpose. To increase explorative possibilities of gravimetry and magnetometry through the transformation of the field by fractional differentiation. Methodology. For ore and hydrocarbon deposits prospecting we use solutions of inverse problems of the field of magnetic and gravimetric surveys. However, the solutions are unstable and ambiguous. For increase of geological pithiness of the solutions of the inverse problems we use derivatives of the higher order integer of gravitational and magnetic potential. However, prospecting possibilities of a field and its first-order derivative on depth strongly differ and become worse with depth, and the second-order and third-order derivatives of the field do not allow determining objects at a depth more than 1000 m at all. In order to increase the prospecting possibilities it is possible to take some fractional derivatives of the field between zeroth order and the first order. Moreover, derivatives of the integral orders are functions linearly dependent to each other. And each new derivative almost doesn't add any geological information. But the close derivatives of the fractional order, on the contrary, are linearly independent and provide unambiguity of the solutions of the inverse problems, and improve their prospecting possibilities. The fractional analysis is already known for more than 200 years and widely applied in other fields of science and techniques. In practice fractional derivative fields were calculated by authors for the field using formulas of Grunwald-Letnikov. Findings. For quantitative interpretation of the field we didn't have corresponding solutions of direct problems of gravimetry and magnetometry because of the lack of the general formula of potential of derivative of nth order. Authors have deduced the formula and have solved some direct problems for fractional derivatives of the field for the purpose of their application in practice. Originality. The theory of gravitational and magnetic potential has been expanded on the area of fractional orders of differentiation. This gives us the additional tool to increase possibilities of magnetic and gravitational survey with prospecting purposes. Practical value. Opportunities and mathematical tools for more substantial and enhanced research of separate geological sites by methods of gravimetry and magnetometry have been created.
Minenko P.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu | Year: 2012
Purpose. To determine the intensity of display of the effect of gravitational radiation (GR) absorption by rocks, using natural laboratories of the type "Earth" together with the gravitational field measured on their surface (GF). To reach the purpose it is necessary to receive formulas for planetary gravimetry direct and inverse problems solution taking into account various schemes of own GR absorption by planets. Methodology. Ambiguity of solution of the inverse problems for hydrocarbons and other mineral deposits prospecting using GF requires raising accuracy of absorption parameters estimations received earlier. If the absorption is very intensive, the GR from oil and gas structures and ore deposits occurring at depths of 1- 10 km will be completely screened by the covering rocks. In that case the attempts of gravimetry prospecting will be useless. If the absorption is too low, it is possible to consider every gravitational anomaly as the one created by local changes of density in earth crust caused by deposits. Estimations of the linear density factor of the GR absorption received by various experimental data differ from 10 -9 to 10 -24m 2/kg. That is why for solution of the inverse problems the author has used experimentally measured values of GF on poles and equators of planets, and for direct problems - exponent distribution of the linear density factor with the indicator in negative first degree for linear model of the environment, and squared one for nonlinear. The received equations have been solved rather linear density factor. Findings. The nonlinear model of linear density factor is more useful for the description of the phenomenon of GR absorption. Originality. On the basis of solutions of the inverse problems for nonlinear models the limits of area of appearance of linear density factor for planets lie within 10 -10-10 -13m 2/kg and it can't essentially shield an oil, gas and ore deposits. Therefore gravitational field interpretation can be carried out under the formulas which do not take into account the GR absorption that is much easier and more effective. Practical value. The received conclusion allows us to prospect mineral deposits at any possible depths with the help of gravimetry by using formulas more economical for calculations, without account taken of the phenomenon of GR absorption.