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Calculator S.,University of New Hampshire | Diaz-Caneja Sela P.,Teacher Training Institute
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities

Background: This investigation details procedures used to teach enhanced natural gestures (ENGs) and illustrates its use with three students with Angelman syndrome (AS). Materials and Methods: Themes were extracted, using a process of content analysis, to organize individuals' feedback pertaining to previous versions of the instructional programme. A 'B' case study design was then employed to follow administration of the modified programme with three students in Madrid, Spain. Programme impact was examined relative to changes in each student's uses of ENGs spontaneously and in response to non-specific verbal prompts, along with team members' responses to a questionnaire designed to evaluate programme efficacy. Results: Two of the three students demonstrated particularly rapid and spontaneous uses of their ENGs. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback from teams supported programme efficacy for all three students. Conclusions: The approach appears viable for individuals with AS and has implications for individuals presenting other diagnoses as well. Additional educational/clinical and research implications are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Kampourakis K.,Teacher Training Institute | Vayena E.,University of Zurich | Mitropoulou C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Van Schaik R.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Reports

Recent advances in genomics and sequencing technology herald the advent of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical practice. Yet, while science and technology have progressed rapidly, legal, social and ethical challenges remain to be resolved. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Huleihil M.,Teacher Training Institute
Physics Research International

The irreversible heat engine is reconsidered with a general heat transfer law. Three criteria known in the literature - power, power density, and efficient power - are redefined in terms of the work criteria function (WCF), a concept introduced in this study. The formulation enabled the suggestion and analysis of a unique criterion - the efficient power density (which accounts for the efficiency and power density). Practically speaking, the efficient power and the efficient power density could be defined on any order based on the WCF. The applicability of the WCF is illustrated for the Newtonian heat transfer law (n=1) and for the radiative law (n=4). The importance of WCF is twofold: it gives an explicit design and educational tool to analyze and to display graphically the different criteria side by side and thus helps in design process. Finally, the criteria were compared and some conclusions were drawn. © 2014 Mahmoud Huleihil. Source

Kampourakis K.,Teacher Training Institute | Minelli A.,University of Padua
American Biology Teacher

We highlight some important conceptual issues that biologists should take into account when teaching evolutionary biology or communicating it to the public. We first present conclusions from conceptual development research on how particular human intuitions, namely design teleology and psychological essentialism, influence the understanding of evolution. We argue that these two intuitions form important conceptual obstacles to understanding evolution that should be explicitly addressed during instruction and public communication. Given that a major issue in evolution is understanding how very different forms may share common ancestry-antievolutionists have argued that this is inconceivable-we suggest that evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which provides concepts and evidence that large morphological change is possible, could be used to address the intuitions that organisms have fixed essences (psychological essentialism) and that their structure indicates some kind of intentional design (design teleology). © 2014 by National Association of Biology Teachers. Source

Tkachuk E.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk

Background: The understandability and readability of the text are significant indicators of evaluation of textbooks. Objective: The aim of the study - rationale of improving the readability and understandability of textbooks. Methods: 60 modern textbooks for 5-11th classes on History, Physics, Biology and 23 textbooks of 1960-1980's edition. Flesch index was used to assess the readability, Fogh index - to evaluate understandability. Results: The readability and understandability of texts in textbooks of 1960-1980's and modern editions have no differences and show the same complexity of old and modern textbooks for students. The indicator of understandability of textbooks for primary classes corresponds to age norm and is 4.4±0.2 points. The indicator of readability for these books is less age norm and is 53.8±2.9 points, which increases the physiological cost of educational activities of children of primary school age. Children's readability and understandability of school textbooks are a significant factor of intensity of training activities and can be objectively assessed by Flesch and Fogh indices, that it is appropriate for an objective hygienic assessment of the tension of the educational activities for children. Conclusion: The main direction of optimization of the tension of educational activity is to reduce the intellectual and emotional loads in children by increasing the easiness of reading textbooks due to their compliance with the age peculiarities of students. Source

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