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Tkachuk E.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk | Year: 2015

Background: The understandability and readability of the text are significant indicators of evaluation of textbooks. Objective: The aim of the study - rationale of improving the readability and understandability of textbooks. Methods: 60 modern textbooks for 5-11th classes on History, Physics, Biology and 23 textbooks of 1960-1980's edition. Flesch index was used to assess the readability, Fogh index - to evaluate understandability. Results: The readability and understandability of texts in textbooks of 1960-1980's and modern editions have no differences and show the same complexity of old and modern textbooks for students. The indicator of understandability of textbooks for primary classes corresponds to age norm and is 4.4±0.2 points. The indicator of readability for these books is less age norm and is 53.8±2.9 points, which increases the physiological cost of educational activities of children of primary school age. Children's readability and understandability of school textbooks are a significant factor of intensity of training activities and can be objectively assessed by Flesch and Fogh indices, that it is appropriate for an objective hygienic assessment of the tension of the educational activities for children. Conclusion: The main direction of optimization of the tension of educational activity is to reduce the intellectual and emotional loads in children by increasing the easiness of reading textbooks due to their compliance with the age peculiarities of students.

Guliyev V.,Ahi Evran University | Guliyev V.,Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of NAS of Azerbaijan | Akbulut A.,Ahi Evran University | Mammadov Y.,Teacher Training Institute
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2013

In the article we consider the fractional maximal operatorMα, 0 ≤ α < Q on any Carnot groupG (i.e., nilpotent stratified Lie group) in the generalized Morrey spacesMp,φ(G), where Q is the homogeneous dimension ofG. We find the conditions on the pair φ1, φ2) which ensures the boundedness of the operator Ma from one generalized Morrey space Mp,φ1(G) to another Mq,φ2(G),1

Kampourakis K.,Teacher Training Institute | Vayena E.,University of Zürich | Mitropoulou C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Van Schaik R.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Reports | Year: 2014

Recent advances in genomics and sequencing technology herald the advent of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical practice. Yet, while science and technology have progressed rapidly, legal, social and ethical challenges remain to be resolved. © 2014 The Authors.

Calculator S.,University of New Hampshire | Diaz-Caneja Sela P.,Teacher Training Institute
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2015

Background: This investigation details procedures used to teach enhanced natural gestures (ENGs) and illustrates its use with three students with Angelman syndrome (AS). Materials and Methods: Themes were extracted, using a process of content analysis, to organize individuals' feedback pertaining to previous versions of the instructional programme. A 'B' case study design was then employed to follow administration of the modified programme with three students in Madrid, Spain. Programme impact was examined relative to changes in each student's uses of ENGs spontaneously and in response to non-specific verbal prompts, along with team members' responses to a questionnaire designed to evaluate programme efficacy. Results: Two of the three students demonstrated particularly rapid and spontaneous uses of their ENGs. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback from teams supported programme efficacy for all three students. Conclusions: The approach appears viable for individuals with AS and has implications for individuals presenting other diagnoses as well. Additional educational/clinical and research implications are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Tuijn S.,Knowledge Center | Janssens F.,University of Twente | Robben P.,Knowledge Center | Robben P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

Objectives: In the scientific literature about reliability, the main approach to increasing reliability seems to involve increasing the number of observers and improving the instrument used. Other aspects for improving reliability - like the training of raters - seem to receive less notice. It is worth asking whether this technical approach could be complemented by training the user of the instrument. A systematic meta-analytical review of the research literature was performed to answer this question and examine the effectiveness of planned interventions for improving interrater reliability of health care professionals. Method: The databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Omega and PsycINFO were searched. The inclusion criteria were met by 57 studies. Details extracted from the studies included the study design, the number of observers and the number of observed cases, the intervention, the type of instrument (whether or not it was highly technical), and statistical information about the agreement before and after the intervention. Interventions were categorized into three groups: training of professionals, improving the diagnostic instrument and a combination of training and improving the instrument. A meta-analysis was performed by means of linear regression. Results: The interventions were arranged according to their effectiveness in improving the diagnostic instrument (mean change: β = 0.13), training combined with improving the instrument (mean change: β = 0.10) and training (mean change: β = 0.09). Conclusion: On average, although all types of interventions are effective, improving the diagnostic instrument seems to be the most effective. Especially when highly technical instruments were concerned, improvement proved to be very effective (β = 0.52). Because instrumental variables constitute a major source of error, improving the instrument is an important approach. However, this review offers solid arguments that can complement the literature and practice, with a focus on training the user of the instrument. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Pandey A.,Teacher Training Institute | Singh S.,Teacher Training Institute
Proceedings of the 2013 2nd International Conference on Information Management in the Knowledge Economy, IMKE 2013 | Year: 2013

The second leading cause of cancer related death in women is breast cancer, mostly diagnosed in the age group of 40-60. Breast cancer is the formation of lump in the breast, this the initial stage which is further followed by abnormal cell division and growth of malignant tumour. Mammography is the most powerful detector of breast cancer that can easily diagnose masses and micro-calcifications. Early detection of masses with minimal false detection is distant reality with mammographic images due to poor contrast (i.e. superimposition of salt tissues of the breast with the mass) and presence of noise. For this purpose different enhancement techniques are applied, but any single technique is not best for all images. In this paper, a performance metric is developed that is applied on each enhancement technique to quantitatively evaluate the degree of enhancement applied on a mammogram. This also evaluates that, which technique is best suited for any particular mammogram. © 2013 IEEE.

Huleihil M.,Teacher Training Institute
Physics Research International | Year: 2015

The irreversible heat engine is reconsidered with a general heat transfer law. Three criteria known in the literature - power, power density, and efficient power - are redefined in terms of the work criteria function (WCF), a concept introduced in this study. The formulation enabled the suggestion and analysis of a unique criterion - the efficient power density (which accounts for the efficiency and power density). Practically speaking, the efficient power and the efficient power density could be defined on any order based on the WCF. The applicability of the WCF is illustrated for the Newtonian heat transfer law (n=1) and for the radiative law (n=4). The importance of WCF is twofold: it gives an explicit design and educational tool to analyze and to display graphically the different criteria side by side and thus helps in design process. Finally, the criteria were compared and some conclusions were drawn. © 2014 Mahmoud Huleihil.

Minenko P.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu | Year: 2012

Purpose. To increase explorative possibilities of gravimetry and magnetometry through the transformation of the field by fractional differentiation. Methodology. For ore and hydrocarbon deposits prospecting we use solutions of inverse problems of the field of magnetic and gravimetric surveys. However, the solutions are unstable and ambiguous. For increase of geological pithiness of the solutions of the inverse problems we use derivatives of the higher order integer of gravitational and magnetic potential. However, prospecting possibilities of a field and its first-order derivative on depth strongly differ and become worse with depth, and the second-order and third-order derivatives of the field do not allow determining objects at a depth more than 1000 m at all. In order to increase the prospecting possibilities it is possible to take some fractional derivatives of the field between zeroth order and the first order. Moreover, derivatives of the integral orders are functions linearly dependent to each other. And each new derivative almost doesn't add any geological information. But the close derivatives of the fractional order, on the contrary, are linearly independent and provide unambiguity of the solutions of the inverse problems, and improve their prospecting possibilities. The fractional analysis is already known for more than 200 years and widely applied in other fields of science and techniques. In practice fractional derivative fields were calculated by authors for the field using formulas of Grunwald-Letnikov. Findings. For quantitative interpretation of the field we didn't have corresponding solutions of direct problems of gravimetry and magnetometry because of the lack of the general formula of potential of derivative of nth order. Authors have deduced the formula and have solved some direct problems for fractional derivatives of the field for the purpose of their application in practice. Originality. The theory of gravitational and magnetic potential has been expanded on the area of fractional orders of differentiation. This gives us the additional tool to increase possibilities of magnetic and gravitational survey with prospecting purposes. Practical value. Opportunities and mathematical tools for more substantial and enhanced research of separate geological sites by methods of gravimetry and magnetometry have been created.

Minenko P.A.,Teacher Training Institute
Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu | Year: 2012

Purpose. To determine the intensity of display of the effect of gravitational radiation (GR) absorption by rocks, using natural laboratories of the type "Earth" together with the gravitational field measured on their surface (GF). To reach the purpose it is necessary to receive formulas for planetary gravimetry direct and inverse problems solution taking into account various schemes of own GR absorption by planets. Methodology. Ambiguity of solution of the inverse problems for hydrocarbons and other mineral deposits prospecting using GF requires raising accuracy of absorption parameters estimations received earlier. If the absorption is very intensive, the GR from oil and gas structures and ore deposits occurring at depths of 1- 10 km will be completely screened by the covering rocks. In that case the attempts of gravimetry prospecting will be useless. If the absorption is too low, it is possible to consider every gravitational anomaly as the one created by local changes of density in earth crust caused by deposits. Estimations of the linear density factor of the GR absorption received by various experimental data differ from 10 -9 to 10 -24m 2/kg. That is why for solution of the inverse problems the author has used experimentally measured values of GF on poles and equators of planets, and for direct problems - exponent distribution of the linear density factor with the indicator in negative first degree for linear model of the environment, and squared one for nonlinear. The received equations have been solved rather linear density factor. Findings. The nonlinear model of linear density factor is more useful for the description of the phenomenon of GR absorption. Originality. On the basis of solutions of the inverse problems for nonlinear models the limits of area of appearance of linear density factor for planets lie within 10 -10-10 -13m 2/kg and it can't essentially shield an oil, gas and ore deposits. Therefore gravitational field interpretation can be carried out under the formulas which do not take into account the GR absorption that is much easier and more effective. Practical value. The received conclusion allows us to prospect mineral deposits at any possible depths with the help of gravimetry by using formulas more economical for calculations, without account taken of the phenomenon of GR absorption.

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