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Chou T.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Yang M.-J.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Tseng S.-K.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Lee S.-S.,National Taiwan University | Chang C.-C.,National Taiwan University
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2017

Andraca droppings is the waste excreted from the tea biter Andraca theae. Its chemical constituents and potential medical use, unlike those of the traditional Chinese medicine silkworm droppings, have not been reported yet. To explore new nutraceuticals, the chemical constituents of this substance were investigated. Since the bioactive ingredients are generally present in the EtOAc-soluble fraction. This fraction, obtained from the ethanolic extract of the dried Andraca droppings by liquid-liquid partitioning, was separated by chromatographic methods, including Sephadex LH-20, centrifugal partition chromatography, and RP-18 columns, to produce 14 compounds (1-14). They were characterized as 1,7-dimethyl xanthine (1), three benzoic acids (2, 3, and 5), and 10 flavonoids (4, 6-14). The amount of compounds 6, 7, 10, 13, and 14 in the droppings were 1.7-15.5-fold compared to those of tea leaves. In addition, 1,7-dimethyl xanthine (1) was found present only in the Andraca droppings but absent in tea leaves. Therefore, except for compound 1, which might be transformed from caffeine by microflora in the insect, the compounds were believed not to be absorbed by the worm gut and excreted directly. The present study suggests the Andraca droppings are an enriched source of the bioactive flavonoids from tea leaves and are potential as a useful nutraceutical. © 2017.


Hsu C.-P.,Yuanpei University | Shih Y.-T.,Yuanpei University | Lin B.-R.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Chiu C.-F.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Lin C.-C.,Yuanpei University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

One newly bred variety of tea cultivar, purple-shoot tea, was selected to evaluate its antiproliferative effects on colorectal carcinoma cells, as well as normal colon cells. The phytochemicals and identified catechins of purple-shoot tea extract (PTE) were significantly higher than that of ordinary tea, especially the anthocyanins (surpassed by 135-fold) and anthocyanidins (surpassed by 3.5-fold). PTE inhibited the proliferation of COLO 320DM (IC 50 = 64.9 μg/mL) and HT-29 (IC 50 = 55.2 μg/mL) by blocking cell cycle progression during the G 0/G 1 phase and inducing apoptotic death. Western blotting indicated that PTE induced cell cycle arrest by reducing the expression of cyclin E and cyclin D1 in COLO 320DM and the upregulation of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in HT-29. Two cells treated with PTE also indicated the cleavage of PARP, activation of caspase 3, and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results showed that PTE is a potential novel dietary agent for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Hu C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Hu C.-Y.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Tsai Y.-Z.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Lin S.-F.,National Taiwan University
Botanical Studies | Year: 2014

Background: Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important economic crop in Taiwan. Particularly, two major commercial types of tea (Paochong tea and Oolong tea) which are produced in Taiwan are famous around the world, and they must be manufactured with specific cultivars. Nevertheless, many elite cultivars have been illegally introduced to foreign countries. Because of the lower cost, large amount of "Taiwan-type tea" are produced and imported to Taiwan, causing a dramatic damage in the tea industry. It is very urgent to develop the stable, fast and reliable DNA markers for fingerprinting tea cultivars in Taiwan and protecting intellectual property rights for breeders. Furthermore, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship evaluations of tea germplasm in Taiwan are imperative for parental selection in the cross-breeding program and avoidance of genetic vulnerability. Results: Two STS and 37 CAPS markers derived from cytoplasmic genome and ESTs of tea have been developed in this study providing a useful tool for distinguishing all investigated germplasm. For identifying 12 prevailing tea cultivars in Taiwan, five core markers, including each one of mitochondria and chloroplast, and three nuclear markers, were developed. Based on principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis, 55 tea germplasm in Taiwan were divided into three groups: sinensis type (C. sinensis var. sinensis), assamica type (C. sinensis var. assamica) and Taiwan wild species (C. formosensis). The result of genetic diversity analysis revealed that both sinensis (0.44) and assamica (0.41) types had higher genetic diversity than wild species (0.25). The close genetic distance between the first (Chin-Shin-Oolong) and the third (Shy-Jih-Chuen) prevailing cultivars was found, and many recently released varieties are the descents of Chin-Shin-Oolong. This implies the potential risk of genetic vulnerability for tea cultivation in Taiwan. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a tool for tea germplasm discrimination and genetic diversity analysis, as well as a set of core markers for effective identification of prevailing cultivars in Taiwan. According to the results of phylogenetic analysis on prevailing tea cultivars, it is necessary to broaden genetic diversity from wild species or plant introduction in future breeding programs. © 2014 Hu et al.


Hu C.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Hu C.-Y.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Lee T.-C.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Tsai H.-T.,Tea Research and Extension Station | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Genetic study on important traits of tea is difficult because of its self-incompatibility in nature. Moreover, development of a new variety usually needs more than 20 years, since it takes many years from seedling to matured plants for trait investigation. Genetic map is an essential tool for genetic study and breeding. In this study, we have developed an integrated genetic map of tea (Camellia sinensis) using a segregating F1 population derived from a cross between two commercial cultivars ('TTES 19' and 'TTES 8'). A total of 574 polymorphic markers (including SSR, CAPS, STS, AFLP, ISSR and RAPD), 69 markers with highly significant levels of segregation distortion (P < 0.001) (12.0 %) were excluded from further analyses. Of the 505 mapped markers, there were 265 paternal markers (52. 5 %), 163 maternal markers (32. 3 %), 65 doubly heterozygous dominant markers (12. 9 %), and 12 co-dominant markers (2. 4 %). The co-dominant markers and doubly heterozygous dominant markers were used as bridge loci for the integration of the paternal and maternal maps. The integrated map comprised 367 linked markers, including 36 SSR, 3 CAPS, 1 STS, 250 AFLP, 13 ISSR and 64 RAPD that were assigned to 18 linkage groups. The linkage groups represented a total map length of 4482. 9 cM with a map density of 12. 2 cM. This genetic map has the highest genetic coverage so far, which could be applied to comparative mapping, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in the future. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Chuang Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chuang Y.-H.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Liu C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Tzou Y.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2010

Chemical surfactants or bio-surfactants intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are considered as potential organic pollutant sorbents. This study evaluates the effects of (1) using either calcined or uncalcined LDH, and various solid/solution ratios, (2) the concentrations of the chemical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or the bio-surfactant rhamnolipid (RL), and (3) reaction temperatures and times on the synthesis of SDS-LDH and RL-LDH. Small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that using 1000mgL-1 RL intercalated 2:1 uncalcined LDH with 3 days reaction time, 0.5gL-1 solid/solution ratio, and temperature of 65°C to synthesize the RL-LDH, containing more organic carbon content, showing larger interlayer distance than SDS-LDH. RL-LDH shows subsequent higher efficiency of naphthalene sorption than SDS-LDH, depending on higher organic carbon contents and larger interlayer distance of RL-LDH. Since RL-LDH is environmentally friendly chemical, these results are of practical interesting in RL-LDH could be potentially employed as a sorbent for removal organic contaminants from aqueous solutions, and particularly in optimizing aquatic environment remediation technologies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chen G.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee S.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu C.-C.,Tea Research and Extension Station | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2014

The taste quality of oolong tea generated from leaves of Camellia sinensis L. cultivated in the same mountain area is positively correlated to the cultivation altitude, partly due to the inverse correlation with the astringency of the tea infusion. The astringency of oolong tea mostly results from the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly catechins and their derivatives. Four catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) together with their gallate derivatives (with relatively high astringency), (-)-EC gallate (ECG) and (-)-EGC gallate (EGCG), were detected as major compounds in oolong tea. The degrees of catechin galloylation, designated as ECG/(EC + ECG) and EGCG/(EGC + EGCG), in both oolong tea infusions and their fresh tea leaves, were found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude at 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m. A similar inverse correlation was observed when seven more oolong tea infusions and seven more fresh leaves harvested at altitude ranging from 170 m to 1600 m were recruited for the analyses. Moreover, catechin contents in oolong tea infusions were also found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude. It is proposed that catechin content and the degree of its galloylation account for, at least partly, the inverse correlation between the astringency of oolong tea and the cultivation altitude. © 2014, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan.


Chen C.-F.,Chinese Culture University | Hu C.-Y.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Liou M.-L.,Taipei Feitsui Reservoir Administration | Wu C.-C.,Tea Research and Extension Station | And 2 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Taipei Feitsui Reservoir supplies drinking water to more than five million citizens in northern Taiwan. The Feitsui Reservoir Administration and Tea Research and Extension Station have implemented a new pollution control measure for the use of low-phosphorous (low-P) fertilizers to prevent eutrophication. In this study, we compared the quality of the soil, effluent and tea from two test fields. Low-P fertilizer was applied to one of the fields, and regular phosphorous fertilizer (regular-P) was applied to the other. The study period covered spring and winter seasons. The results showed that the investigated soil chemical properties were not influenced by either the low-P or regular-P fertilizers. The effluent quality was influenced by the precondition of the soil, which resulted in a larger average total phosphorous (TP) concentration in the low-P field. However, there was a decreasing trend in P concentration that amounted to approximately half of the average TP concentration in the regular-P field. The growth characteristics and yields were not significantly different between the two fields, but the taste and aroma of the tea from the low-P field was rated as superior to that of the regular-P field. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Su H.J.,Meiho University | Thseng F.M.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Chen J.S.,Tea Research and Extension Station | Ko W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

Twigs entangled by rhizomorphs of Marasmius crinisequi inside tea bushes are mostly devoid of leaves. This was found to be due to the emission of a defoliation-inducing volatile by the rhizomorphs, because when tea twigs were enclosed with rhizomorph sections of M. crinisequi, leaf fall occurred within 5 days. Leaves on control twigs remained healthy and attached. The volatile substances emitted from rhizomorphs were passed through acetone and the volatile compounds in acetone were analyzed by GC/MS. The emitted volatiles were identified as 3-oxo-β-ionol, 2,4,6-tri-ter-butyl-4-methyl-cyclohexadien-2, 5-one and 2-phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethylpyridine. These compounds have not been reported from fungi or plants prior to this report. The significance of the production of a defoliation-inducing volatile by rhizomorphs of M. crinisequi in its acquisition of nutrients from tea leaves in the competitive environment is discussed. © 2010 Kevin D. Hyde.


PubMed | Tea Research and Extension Station and National Chung Hsing University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Taiwan is known for its high quality oolong tea. Because of high consumer demand, some tea manufactures mix lower quality leaves with genuine Taiwan oolong tea in order to increase profits. Robust scientific methods are, therefore, needed to verify the origin and quality of tea leaves. In this study, we investigated whether two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy (nano-LC/MS/MS) coupled with a two-layer feature selection mechanism comprising information gain attribute evaluation (IGAE) and support vector machine feature selection (SVM-FS) are useful in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as markers of the original source of oolong tea. Samples in this study included oolong tea leaves from 23 different sources. We found that our method had an accuracy of 95.5% in correctly identifying the origin of the leaves. Overall, our method is a novel approach for determining the origin of oolong tea leaves.


PubMed | National Taipei University and Tea Research and Extension Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2015

Variation in the chloroplast DNA sequence is useful for plant phylogenetic studies. However, the number of variable sequences provided by chloroplast DNA for suggested genes or genomic regions in plant phylogenetic analyses is often inadequate. To identify conserved regions that can be used to design primers and amplify variable sequences for use in plant phylogenetic studies, the complete chloroplast genomic sequences of six plant species (including Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, and Phaseolus vulgaris), searched from the taxonomy database of NCBI were investigated. A total of 93 conserved regions, 32 in large single copy and 61 in inverted repeat regions, were identified. A set of five primer pairs were designed according to the conserved sequences located in the psbA~trnK, psbB~psbH, rpl23~trnI, trnR~trnN, and trnY~trnD regions to amplify variable DNA fragments. An additional 18 plant accessions from 14 species were used to validate their utility. Each of the tested species could be distinguished by length polymorphisms of fragments amplified with the five primer pairs. trnR~trnN and rpl23~trnI amplified fragments specific to monocot and legume species, respectively. Three primer pairs located in the psbA~trnK, psbB~psbH, and trnR~trnN regions were applied to amplify variable DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis using the maximum parsimony method. The consistent result between taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis on the variable sequences amplified with these three primer pairs was revealed. The five newly developed primer pairs are recommended as tools for use in the identification of plant species and in phylogenetic studies.

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