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Hamburg, Germany

Guenther H.,Kraft Foods Inc. | Hoenicke K.,Eurofins | Biesterveld S.,Sara Lee DE NV | Gerhard-Rieben E.,Nestec Ltd | Lantz I.,Tchibo GmbH
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

The occurrence of furan in some food products has already been known for a few decades, and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roasted coffee, which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment at roasting which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavour profile of a roasted coffee. The objective of this study is to provide data to allow a better understanding of the available data of furan in coffee, the kinetics of furan generated during roasting, and to estimate the reduction of furan levels afterwards due to subsequent processing steps and consumer handling. Finally, the study is meant as a contribution to establish exposure data on the basis of scientific data at the stage of coffee consumption. This paper shows that the formation of furan during roasting is dependent on roasting conditions and is, therefore, directly linked to achieving targeted flavour profiles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that modifications in process conditions potentially to reduce furan levels may have the opposite effect on other undesired reaction products of the roasting chemistry such as, for example, acrylamide. Due to the high volatility of furan, any subsequent processing step or consumer handling has an impact on the level of furan. As a guidance from this study and in consideration of the identified losses of each process and handling step on the basis of the trial conditions, it is estimated that only approximately 10% of the initially generated furan during roasting gets into the cup of coffee for consumption. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Patent
Tchibo Gmbh | Date: 2011-04-27

The present invention relates to a method for producing a coffee blend and the coffee blend obtained by this method, wherein the coffee blend is characterized in that a coffee drink brewed from said coffee blend contains high amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and N-methylpyridinium cations (NMP) and optionally, low amounts of carboxylic acid-5-hydrox-ytryptamides (C5-HT), has a superior antioxidative activity.


Rubach M.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Rubach M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Lang R.,TU Munich | Bytof G.,Tchibo GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of βN-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Riedel A.,University of Vienna | Pignitter M.,University of Vienna | Hochkogler C.M.,University of Vienna | Rohm B.,University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2012

Caffeine has been hypothesised as a thermogenic agent that might help to maintain a healthy body weight. Since very little is known about its actions on cellular energy metabolism, we investigated the effect of caffeine on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, cellular energy supply and thermogenesis in HepG2 cells, and studied its action on fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at concentrations ranging from 30-1500 μM. In HepG2 cells, caffeine induced a depolarisation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, a feature of mitochondrial thermogenesis, both directly and after 24 h incubation. Increased concentrations of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) also indicated a thermogenic activity of caffeine. Energy generating pathways, such as mitochondrial respiration, fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic lactate production, were attenuated by caffeine treatment. Nevertheless, HepG2 cells demonstrated a higher energy charge potential after exposure to caffeine that might result from energy restoration through attenuation of energy consuming pathways, as typically found in hibernating animals. In 3T3-L1 cells, in contrast, caffeine increased fatty acid uptake, but did not affect lipid accumulation. We provide evidence that caffeine stimulates thermogenesis but concomitantly causes energy restoration that may compensate enhanced energy expenditure. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Riedel A.,University of Vienna | Hochkogler C.M.,University of Vienna | Lang R.,TU Munich | Bytof G.,Tchibo GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2014

N-Methylpyridinium (NMP) is a thermal degradation product of trigonelline formed upon coffee roasting and hypothesized to exert several health benefits in humans. Since for trigonelline evidence for hypoglycemic effects exists, we examined whether NMP also affects mechanisms of glucose utilization and cellular energy formation. For this purpose, the impact of trigonelline and NMP on respiratory activity, extracellular acidification, cellular adenosine nucleotides, energy supply from fatty acids and glucose as well as thermogenesis in HepG2 cells was analyzed. A 24 hour incubation with nanomolar concentrations of NMP enhanced oxygen consumption rates, resulting in increased ATP levels. Glucose was identified as the prevalent energy substrate as its uptake was augmented up to 18.1% ± 7.44% by NMP at 0.09 μM, whereas the uptake of fatty acids decreased upon NMP treatment. Cellular glucose uptake was also stimulated by trigonelline administration; however, a shift to the anaerobic energy production pathway was monitored. Both pyridine derivatives induced thermogenesis, although trigonelline presumably promoted proton leaks, while NMP increased the concentration of the uncoupling protein-2. We provide evidence that both compounds appear to stimulate cellular energy metabolism in HepG 2 cells. Human intervention studies are warranted to ensure these effects in vivo. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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