Taylor Monroe

Downham Market, United Kingdom

Taylor Monroe

Downham Market, United Kingdom
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PubMed | University of Turku, University of Helsinki, Taylor Monroe, Davies Veterinary Specialists and University of Florida
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia | Year: 2016

To investigate the effects of MK-467 on sedation quality, and cardiopulmonary and pharmacokinetic variables in horses sedated intravenously (IV) with romifidine.Experimental, randomized, crossover design.Seven healthy mares.Romifidine (80gkgAfter R, ABP increased and HR and fCombined romifidine and MK-467 prevented the cardiovascular changes commonly seen with romifidine but did not affect sedation quality.Combined IV romifidine and MK-467 can be used to attenuate the cardiovascular effects of romifidine, such as in horses with colic or undergoing general anaesthesia.

PubMed | Paulista University and Taylor Monroe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2016

To investigate two protocols to provide antinociception in horses.To evaluate the antinociceptive effects of intravenous methadone combined with detomidine or acepromazine in adult horses.Randomised, blinded, crossover study.Mechanical, thermal and electrical stimuli were applied to the dorsal left and right metacarpus and coronary band of the left thoracic limb, respectively. A thermal stimulus was applied caudal to the withers. The horses were treated with saline (C), a combination of methadone (0.2mg/kg bwt) and detomidine (10g/kg bwt) (MD) or methadone (0.2mg/kg bwt) and acepromazine (0.05mg/kg bwt) (MA) at 1week intervals. Nociceptive thresholds were measured before and at 15min intervals until 150min after treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare data between groups at each time point and over time within each group, followed by the Bonferroni method to adjust the P value.The mechanical stimulus was the most sensitive test to differentiate the antinociceptive effects of the treatments. Mechanical thresholds were greater after MD than MA between 15 and 30min and with both MD and MA these thresholds were greater than C from 15 to 60min. Electrical and thermal limb thresholds were greater after MD than C at 15 and 45min and at 15, 30, 45, 75 and 105min, respectively. Thermal limb thresholds were greater with MA than C at 30min. Thoracic thermal threshold in MD and MA were higher than C at 45, 75, 90 and 120min and from 30 to 75min, respectively.Methadone and acepromazine produced less pronounced mechanical antinociception than MD.

Sparkes A.H.,Panel Chair | Lascelles B.D.X.,North Carolina State University | Malik R.,University of Sydney | Sampietro L.R.,Clinica Veterinaria Bendinat | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2010

NSAIDs and cats: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an important class of drug in feline medicine, having analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. While most published data on their use in this species relate to short-term (often perioperative) therapy, there is increasing evidence of the value of these drugs in treating chronic pain in cats (for example, that associated with degenerative joint disease), and some NSAIDs have now become licensed for long-term use in cats in some geographies. Most of our knowledge of therapeutic mechanisms or adverse drug reactions associated with NSAIDs is extrapolated from work in other species, and there is a paucity of published data relating to cats. Guidelines: These guidelines have been drawn together by an expert panel, which have reviewed the current literature on long-term NSAID use in cats and other species, and developed guidance on their use based on this information. The aim is to provide practical information for veterinarians to encourage appropriate NSAID therapy whenever cats will benefit from the use of these drugs. © 2010 ISFM and AAFP.

De Vries A.,Animal Health Trust | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe | Troughton G.,Sphere Medical Ltd. | Liu B.,Sphere Medical Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

This study examined the pharmacokinetics of propofol by infusion in ponies using an analyser for the rapid measurement of propofol concentrations. The analyser (Pelorus 1000; Sphere Medical Ltd., Cambridge, UK) has a measurement cycle of approximately five minutes. Ten Welsh-cross ponies (weighing 135-300kg) undergoing minor procedures were studied after premedication with acepromazine 0.03mg/kg and detomidine 0.015mg/kg. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 2mg/kg and diazepam 0.03mg/kg, and maintained with an infusion of propofol at an initial rate of 0.16 mg/kg/min for the first thirty minutes, after a bolus of 0.3mg/kg; and ketamine by infusion (20-40μg/kg/min). Blood samples (<2mL) were collected prior to, during and after the infusion, and on assuming standing position. Anaesthesia was uneventful; with the duration of infusion 31-89min. Blood propofol concentrations during the infusion ranged between 1.52 and 7.65μg/mL; pseudo-steady state concentrations 3.64-6.78μg/mL, and concentrations on assuming standing position 0.75-1.40μg/mL. Propofol clearance and volume of distribution were 31.4 (SD 6.1) mL/min/kg and 220.7 (132.0) mL/kg, respectively. The propofol analyser allows titration of propofol to a given concentration; and may be useful for anaesthesia in animals where kinetics are unknown; in disease states; and where intercurrent therapies affect propofol disposition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Love E.J.,University of Bristol | Pelligand L.,The Royal Veterinary College | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe | Murrell J.C.,University of Bristol | Sear J.W.,University of Oxford
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2015

Objective: Describe the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in horses and to relate the plasma buprenorphine concentration to the pharmacodynamic effects. Study design: Single phase non-blinded study. Animals: Six dedicated research horses, aged 3-10 years and weighing 480-515 kg. Methods: Thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds, heart and respiratory rates and locomotor activity were measured before and 15, 30, 45 & 60 minutes and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hours post-administration of 10 μg kg-1 buprenorphine IV. Intestinal motility was measured 1, 6, 12 & 24 hours after buprenorphine administration. Venous blood samples were obtained before administration of buprenorphine 10 μg kg-1 IV and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, 30, 45 & 60 minutes, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hours afterwards. Plasma buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) assay with solid-phase extraction. A non-compartmental method was used for analysis of the plasma concentration-time data and plasma buprenorphine concentrations were modelled against two dynamic effects (change in thermal threshold and mechanical threshold) using a simple Emax model. Results: Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were detectable to 480 minutes in all horses and to 720 minutes in two out of six horses. Norbuprenorphine was not detected. Thermal thresholds increased from 15 minutes post-buprenorphine administration until the 8-12 hour time points. The increase in mechanical threshold ranged from 3.5 to 6.0 Newtons (median: 4.4 N); and was associated with plasma buprenorphine concentrations in the range 0.34-2.45 ng mL-1. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The suitability of the use of buprenorphine for peri-operative analgesia in the horse is supported by the present study. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

Steagall P.V.M.,University of Montréal | Monteiro-Steagall B.P.,University of Montréal | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Pain management is a crucial component of feline medicine and surgery. This review critically evaluates studies using buprenorphine in cats and highlights the clinical application of the opioid in this species. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling of IV buprenorphine has been best described by a combined effect compartmental/receptor association-dissociation model with negative hysteresis. Therefore, plasma concentrations of the drug are not correlated with analgesia, and clinicians should not expect to observe pain relief immediately after drug administration. In addition, a ceiling effect has not been demonstrated after administration of clinical doses of buprenorphine in cats; dosages of up to 0.04 mg/kg have been reported. The route of administration influences the onset, duration, and magnitude of antinociception and analgesia when using this drug in cats. At clinical dosages, the SC route of administration does not appear to provide adequate antinociception and analgesia whereas the buccal route has produced inconsistent results. Intravenous or IM administration at a dosage of 0.02-0.04 mg/kg is the preferred for treatment of pain in the acute setting. A literature search found 14 clinical trials evaluating buprenorphine sedation, analgesia, or both in cats. There were 22 original research studies reporting the antinociceptive effects of buprenorphine by means of thermal threshold, mechanical threshold, or both, minimal alveolar concentration, or PK-PD. Individual variability in response to buprenorphine administration has been reported, indicating that buprenorphine may not provide sufficient analgesia in some cats. Pain assessment is important when evaluating the efficacy of buprenorphine and determining whether additional analgesic treatment is needed. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Lewis J.C.M.,Wildlife Vets International | Teale P.,LCG Group | Webber G.,Quotient Bioresearch | Sear J.W.,University of Oxford | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Serious post-operative neurological complications of unknown aetiology are reported in tigers after immobilisation using tiletamine and zolazepam. These complications may arise from the persistent effects of tiletamine or active metabolites of tiletamine or zolazepam. Concentrations of tiletamine, zolazepam and some metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plasma from captive tigers (n=8) and leopards (n=9; an unaffected species, for comparison) during anaesthesia for routine clinical procedures. The zolazepam:tiletamine (Z:T) ratio was calculated. Peak concentrations occurred at 9-33min and ranged from 83.5 to 379.2ng/mL for tiletamine and 301.1 to 1239.3ng/mL for zolazepam after correction for dose by weight. There were no significant differences between tigers and leopards. The Z:T ratio was generally <5 and did not differ between species. In both tigers and leopards, zolazepam metabolism appeared to be primarily via demethylation. There was evidence for hydroxylation in leopards, but much less in tigers than leopards. No major differences between the species in parent pharmacokinetics were identified. The metabolism of tiletamine could not be defined with any degree of certainty for either species. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Slingsby L.S.,University of Bristol | Murrell J.C.,University of Bristol | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Naloxone can enhance the antinociceptive/analgesic effects of buprenorphine in humans and rats. The antinociceptive effects of a patented 15:1 buprenorphine:naloxone combination was investigated in cats using a thermal and mechanical nociceptive model. Twelve cats received buprenorphine 10 μg/kg, naloxone 0.67 μg/kg or a buprenorphine-naloxone combination intramuscularly in a randomised cross over study. Using thermal and mechanical analgesiometry validated in the cat, pre-treatment baselines were measured. Following test drug administration, thresholds were studied for the next 24 h. Naloxone did not enhance the thermal antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine. The results from this study are in agreement with previously published work showing that naloxone antagonises the effects of clinically analgesic doses of buprenorphine. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds were not affected by buprenorphine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

de Vries A.,Animal Health Trust | Thomson S.,Higham Gobion | Taylor P.M.,Taylor Monroe
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2015

Objective: To compare intravenous (IV) midazolam and diazepam administered with ketamine for induction of anaesthesia in ponies, already sedated with detomidine, undergoing field castration. Study design: Prospective, randomised, 'blinded', clinical study. Animals: Twenty Welsh pony yearlings. Methods: After IV injection of detomidine (20 μg kg-1) and phenylbutazone (4.4 mg kg-1) ponies were allocated to receive either IV midazolam (group M) or diazepam (group D) (both 0.06 mg kg-1) with ketamine (2.2 mg kg-1) for induction of anaesthesia. Using simple descriptive scales, quality of sedation, induction, endotracheal intubation, surgical conditions and recovery were scored by observers blinded to treatment. Time from sedation to induction of anaesthesia, IV injection to lateral recumbency, induction to start of surgery, induction to first head lift and to standing, and total surgical time were measured. Cardiorespiratory function was assessed every 5 minutes. Time, number and total quantity of additional IV ketamine as well as any adverse effects were documented. Data were tested for normality and analysed using two-way anova with Bonferroni post hoc tests, unpaired t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no significant group differences in any of the measured variables except bodyweight (mean ± SD: group M 163 ± 12 kg; group D 150 ± 7 kg; p = 0.01). One pony in group M required ketamine 15 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. Surgical conditions were good in all cases; time from induction to standing was 50 ± 11 minutes in group M and 48 ± 12 minutes in group D. There were no adverse effects. Recoveries were uneventful with minimal ataxia. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Midazolam and diazepam at 0.06 mg kg-1 can be used interchangeably in combination with ketamine for IV induction of short term anaesthesia in ponies. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

PubMed | University of Liverpool and Taylor Monroe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia | Year: 2016

To review the literature concerning mortality associated with general anaesthesia in horses and to assess whether there is evidence for a reduction in mortality over the 20years since the Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF).PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. Search terms used: horse; pony; equine; anaesthesia; anesthesia; recovery; morbidity, and mortality.The most recent studies, in which isoflurane and sevoflurane have been more commonly used for anaesthesia maintenance, report fewer intraoperative cardiac arrests than older studies in which halothane was favoured. Catastrophic fractures, however, have become the greatest cause of recovery-associated mortality.

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