Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

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Nair S.C.,Tawam Hospital | Ibrahim H.,Tawam Hospital | Celentano D.D.,Johns Hopkins University
Contemporary Clinical Trials | Year: 2013

Background: Nearly 31% of the world's clinical trials are conducted outside the US and 25% of the new drug applications include data from international sites. The high population growth, demand for medication, increased prevalence of life-style related and rare genetic diseases in the MENA countries should be associated with a consequent scale-up of clinical trials in these countries. However, the region sponsors under 1% of global clinical trials. Methods: Determinants including the regulatory environment, patient protection, physician-preparedness, types of diseases, costs of trials and pace of subject recruitment, were analyzed to identify critical factors that influence barriers to the conduct clinical trials in MENA. Results: Strategic planning by the CRO can help overcome challenges related to regulatory and oversight requirements. Barriers related to trial quality and subject protection can be mitigated by risk-based monitoring. Growing healthcare infrastructure and communication technologies provide clear advantages for subject recruitment. Low operating costs combined with the increase in pharmaceutical sales provide incentives for the future conduct of clinical trials. Limitations: Although the opportunities and challenges cited are common to the MENA region, further studies are needed to assess other potential contributing variables for the conduct of clinical trials specific to each MENA country. Conclusion: Challenges in drug importation and site oversight can be overcome with systematic interventions. Social media network and community awareness programs can assist reductions in barriers in obtaining effective informed consents. Increasing pharmaceutical sales, population growth, high prevalence of genetic and life-style related diseases and reduced clinical trial development costs offer expanding opportunities for future clinical trials in MENA. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Dawodu A.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Saadi H.F.,United Arab Emirates University | Bekdache G.,Tawam Hospital | Javed Y.,United Arab Emirates University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background: Vitamin D (vD) deficiency in pregnancy is a global health problem and the amount of vD supplementation to prevent vD deficiency is controversial. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine effectiveness and safety of prenatal 2000 IU and 4000 IU/d compared with 400 IU/d vD3 supplementation in a randomized controlled trial in population in which vD deficiency is endemic. Design/Methods: Arab women were randomized at 12-16 weeks of gestation to 400, 2000, and 4000 IU/d vD3, which were continued to delivery. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured during pregnancy and at delivery. The primary outcome was the maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D, and the secondary outcomes were the achievement of sufficient serum 25(OH)D of 32 ng/mL or greater (≥80 nmol/L) at delivery. Setting: The locations were primary care and tertiary perinatal care centers. Results: Of 192 enrolled, 162 (84%) continued to delivery. Mean serum 25(OH)D of 8.2 ng/mL (20.5 nmol/L) at enrollment was low. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations at delivery and in cord blood were significantly higher in the 2000 and 4000 IU than the 400 IU/d group (P < .001) and was highest in the 4000 IU/d group. The percent who achieved 25(OH)D greater than 32 ng/mL and greater than 20 ng/mL concentrations in mothers and infants was highest in 4000 IU/d group. Safety measurements were similar by group and no adverse event related to vD supplementation. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation of 2000 and 4000 IU/d appeared safe in pregnancy, and 4000 IU/d was most effective in optimizing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in mothers and their infants. These findings could apply to other populations in which vD deficiency is endemic. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Agarwal M.M.,United Arab Emirates University | Dhatt G.S.,Tawam Hospital | Shah S.M.,United Arab Emirates University
Diabetes Care | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - To determine the impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria on 1) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis compared with the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria and 2) the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to predict GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In 10,283 pregnant women undergoing a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for universal screening of GDM, two FPG thresholds (of the OGTT) were used to rule in and to rule out GDM. RESULTS - The IADPSG and ADA criteria identified GDM in 3,875 (37.7%) women and 1,328 (12.9%) women, respectively (P<0.0005). FPG thresholds of ≥5.1 mmol/l ruled in GDM in 2,975 (28.9%) women with 100% specificity, while <4.4 mmol/l ruled out GDM in 2,228 (21.7%) women with 95.4% sensitivity. FPG independently could have avoided the OGTT in 5,203 (50.6%) women. CONCLUSIONS - The IADPSG criteria increased GDM prevalence nearly threefold. By circumventing a significant number of OGTTs, an initial FPG can greatly simplify the IADPSG diagnostic algorithm. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.


Amin A.,United Arab Emirates University | Amin A.,Cairo University | Hamza A.A.,United Arab Emirates University | Bajbouj K.,United Arab Emirates University | And 2 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2011

Saffron has been proposed as a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the chemopreventive action and the possible mechanisms of saffron against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer in rats. Administration of saffron at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day was started 2 weeks prior to the DEN injection and was continued for 22 weeks. Saffron significantly reduced the DEN-induced increase in the number and the incidence of hepatic dyschromatic nodules. Saffron also decreased the number and the area of placental glutathione S-transferase-positive foci in livers of DEN-treated rats. Furthermore, saffron counteracted DEN-induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase levels and diminishing of myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation in liver. The results of immunohistochemical staining of rat liver showed that saffron inhibited the DEN-mediated elevations in numbers of cells positive for Ki-67, cyclooxygenase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-kappa B p-65, and phosphorylated tumor necrosis factor receptor. Saffron also blocked the depletion in the number of cells positive for TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) and M30 CytoDeath in liver tissues of DEN-treated rats. In vitro experiments carried out using HepG2 cells also confirmed these findings and showed inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation, increased cleavage of caspase-3, as well as DNA damage and cell cycle arrest upon saffron treatment. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that saffron exerts a significant chemopreventive effect against liver cancer through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. This report also shows some evidence that saffron protects rat liver from cancer via modulating oxidative damage and suppressing inflammatory response. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


El-Hattab A.W.,Tawam Hospital
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2016

l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Background: Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding for the infant. The present study aimed at investigating the different infant feeding practices and the influencing factors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods. A convenient sample of 593 Emirati mothers who had infants up to 2 years of age was interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) and Primary Health Centers (PHC) in three cities. Results: Almost all the mothers in the study had initiated breastfeeding (98%). The mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.6 months. The initiation and duration of breastfeeding rates were influenced by mother's age (P<0.034)and education(P<0.01), parity(OR=2.13; P<0.001), rooming in(OR=21.70; P<0.001), nipple problem(P<0.010) and use of contraception(P<0.034). As for the feeding patterns, the results of the multiple logistic analyses revealed that rooming in (OR=4.48; P<0.001), feeding on demand (OR=2.29; P<0.005) and feeding more frequently at night (P<0.001) emerged as significant factors associated with exclusive or predominantly breastfeeding practices. Among the 593 infants in the study, 24.1% had complementary feeding, 25% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and 49.4% were predominantly breastfed since birth. About 30% of the infants were given nonmilk fluids such as: Anis seed drink (Yansun), grippe water and tea before 3 months of age. The majority of the infants (83.5%) in the three areas received solid food before the age of 6 months. A variety of reasons were reported as perceived by mothers for terminating breastfeeding. The most common reasons were: new pregnancy (32.5%), insufficient milk supply (24.4%) and infant weaned itself (24.4%). Conclusions: In conclusion, infant and young child feeding practices in this study were suboptimal. There is a need for a national community-based breastfeeding intervention programme and for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as part of a primary public health strategy to decrease health risks and problems in the UAE. © 2013 Radwan.


Hammouda E.I.,Tawam Hospital
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is approaching epidemic proportions in most countries and has captured the attention of physicians at local, national and global levels. The elderly population remains at a higher risk for diabetes mellitus (1), and the disease poses unique concerns for geriatricians, primary care physicians, nurses and specialised pharmacists who provide care to the elderly. Glycaemic control, geriatric-related syndromes and cardiovascular risk factors considerably affect the elderly patient's functional status and life expectancy (2). Geriatric syndromes may include polypharmacy, chronic pain, injurious falls, cognitive impairment, urinary incontinence and depression. Higher rates of premature death; functional disability; and chronic illnesses, such as hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents, dementia and coronary artery disease, often affect elderly diabetic patients. Discussion: Collaborative efforts are continually needed to allocate and maximise utilisation of resources to help empower older adults with diabetes to overcome barriers to disease management. Healthcare providers are increasingly challenged by the complexity of problems that face old patients, and must therefore be prepared to assess and treat diabetes mellitus within the milieu of many geriatric-related chronic illnesses. Healthcare providers must tailor individualised treatment methods, with the ultimate goal of not only achieving laboratory norms but also improving the quality of life for this vulnerable population. Conclusion: There is a need for extra care and overcoming barriers to diabetes control in old patients as a dynamic and a continuous task that needs coordination of healthcare systems and professionals at all levels of care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Al-Shibli A.,Tawam Hospital
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by mutation in the genes coding for tight junction proteins Claudin-16 and Claudin-19. Affected individuals usually develop nephrocalcinosis and progressive renal failure; some of them may have ophthalmologic involvement as well. Phenotypic description of three affected individuals from the same Middle Eastern kindred (two sisters and their cousin) is presented. This includes both clinical and laboratory findings upon initial presentation and subsequent follow-up. Molecular analysis of the CLDN19 gene was performed on the three cases and one set of parents. A novel homozygous missense mutation in CLDN19 (c.241C>T, p.Arg81Cys) was detected in all three affected children. The parents were heterozygous. Clinical and laboratory data in the three children with renal and ocular manifestations of FHHNC are described. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in the CLDN19 gene. FHHNC is a rare cause of nephrocalcinosis, and we believe that it should be considered in the presence of nephrocalcinosis with hypercalcuria and hypermagnesuria.


Al-Attrach I.,Tawam Hospital
Arab journal of nephrology and transplantation | Year: 2011

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) belongs to a family of related autoimmune rheumatic disorders that are capable of affecting multiple organs, and they are all associated with a variety of autoantibodies. Henoch Schoenlein purpura (HSP) is a sort of systemic vasculitis that is not associated with auto-antibodies and can affect different organs including the kidneys. A 12 year-old girl presented with abdominal pain, low grade fever, swollen and tender feet and left hand, skin rash on the lower extremities, and high blood pressure. Initial laboratory tests revealed severe proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and low C3 level. Renal biopsy showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with IgA, fibrinogen and C3 deposits. The case was accordingly diagnosed as HSP with severe IgA nephropathy. Treatment was started with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and pulse methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The patient improved and treatment was discontinued after 5.5 months. One month after withdrawal of her medications, the patient presented again with serositis and recurrent proteinuria. Both antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti dsDNA were positive. At this point she was diagnosed to have SLE disease and immunosuppressive treatment was restarted. Following this, symptoms disappeared, proteinuria regressed and anti-dsDNA titer dropped. This case presented with features of HSP and was later-on diagnosed to have SLE. This kind of clinical overlapping has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge.


El-Hattab A.W.,Tawam Hospital
Clinics in Perinatology | Year: 2015

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are individually rare but collectively common. Approximately 25% of IEMs can have manifestations in the neonatal period. Neonates with IEM are usually healthy at birth; however, in hours to days after birth they can develop nonspecific signs that are common to several other neonatal conditions. Therefore, maintaining a high index of suspicion is extremely important for early diagnosis and the institution of appropriate therapy, which are mandatory to prevent death and ameliorate complications from many IEMs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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