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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Breve N.W.P.,Sportvisserij Nederland | Buijse A.D.,Deltares | Kroes M.J.,Tauw bv | Wanningen H.,Wanningen Water Consult | Vriese F.T.,ATKB
Science of the Total Environment

Preservation and restoration of Europe's endangered migratory fish species and habitats are high on the international river basin policy agenda. Improvement through restoration of longitudinal connectivity is seen as an important measure, but although prioritization of in-stream barriers has been addressed at local and regional levels the process still lacks adequate priority on the international level. This paper introduces a well-tested method, designed to help decision makers achieve the rehabilitation of targeted ichthyofauna more successfully. This method assesses artificial barriers within waters designated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Europe's main legislative driver for ecological improvement of river basins. The method aggregates migratory fish communities (both diadromous and potamodromous) into functional biological units (ecological fish guilds) and defines their most pressing habitat requirements. Using GIS mapping and spatial analysis of the potential ranges (fish zonation) we pin-point the most important barriers, per guild. This method was developed and deployed over a 12. year period as a practical case study, fitting data derived from the 36 regional water management organisations in the Netherlands. We delivered national advice on the prioritization of a total of 2924 barriers located within WFD water bodies, facilitating migration for all 18 indigenous migratory fish species. Scaling up to larger geographical areas can be achieved using datasets from other countries to link water body typologies to distribution ranges of migratory fish species. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hoorens B.,VU University Amsterdam | Hoorens B.,Tauw bv | Stroetenga M.,VU University Amsterdam | Aerts R.,VU University Amsterdam

It is very difficult to estimate litter decomposition rates in natural ecosystems because litters of many species are mixed and idiosyncratic interactions occur among those litters. A way to tackle this problem is to investigate litter mixing effects not at the species level but at the level of Plant Functional Types (PFTs). We tested the hypothesis that at the PFT level positive and negative interactions balance each other, causing an overall additive effect (no significant interactions among PFTs). Thereto, we used litter of four PFTs from a temperate peatland in which random draws were taken from the litter species pool of each PFT for every combination of 2, 3, and 4 PFTs. Decomposition rates clearly differed among the 4 PFTs (Sphagnum spp. < graminoids = N-fixing tree < forbs) and showed little variation within the PFTs (notably for the Sphagnum mosses and the graminoids). Significant positive interactions (4 out of 11) in the PFT mixtures were only found after 20 weeks and in all these combinations Sphagnum was involved. After 36 and 56 weeks of incubation interactions were not significantly different from zero. However, standard deviations were larger than the means, indicating that positive and negative interactions balanced each other. Thus, when litter mixture interactions are considered at the PFT level the interactions are additive. From this we conclude that for estimating litter decomposition rates at the ecosystem level, it is sufficient to use the weighted (by litter production) average decomposition rates of the contributing PFTs. © 2009 The Author(s). Source

Oosterkamp M.J.,Wageningen University | Oosterkamp M.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Veuskens T.,Wageningen University | Talarico Saia F.,Wageningen University | And 24 more authors.

The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601T is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601T are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601T and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601T. Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601T. Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far. © 2013 Oosterkamp et al. Source

Pieterse B.,BioDetection Systems BV | Rijk I.J.C.,WitteveenBos Consulting Engineers B.V. | Simon E.,BioDetection Systems BV | van Vugt-Lussenburg B.M.A.,BioDetection Systems BV | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

A combined chemical and biological analysis of samples from a major obsolete pesticide and persistent organic pollutant (POP) dumpsite in Northern Tajikistan was carried out. The chemical analytical screening focused on a range of prioritized compounds and compounds known to be present locally. Since chemical analytics does not allow measurements of hazards in complex mixtures, we tested the use of a novel effect-based approach using a panel of quantitative high-throughput CALUX reporter assays measuring distinct biological effects relevant in hazard assessment. Assays were included for assessing effects related to estrogen, androgen, and progestin signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated signaling, AP1 signaling, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, chemical hypoxia, and ER stress. With this panel of assays, we first quantified the biological activities of the individual chemicals measured in chemical analytics. Next, we calculated the expected sum activity by these chemicals in the samples of the pesticide dump site and compared the results with the measured CALUX bioactivity of the total extracts of these samples. The results showed that particularly endocrine disruption-related effects were common among the samples. This was consistent with the toxicological profiles of the individual chemicals that dominated these samples. However, large discrepancies between chemical and biological analysis were found in a sample from a burn place present in this site, with biological activities that could not be explained by chemical analysis. This is likely to be caused by toxic combustion products or by spills of compounds that were not targeted in the chemical analysis. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Langenhoff A.A.M.,Deltares | Langenhoff A.A.M.,Wageningen University | Staps S.J.M.,Deltares | Staps S.J.M.,Louis Bolk Institute | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology

The feasibility of a bioscreen for the in situ biodegradation of HCH and its intermediates is demonstrated at a contaminated site in The Netherlands, via the discontinuous addition of methanol as electron donor. An infiltration system was installed and operated at the site over a length of 150 m and a depth of 8 m, to create an anaerobic infiltration zone in which HCH is converted. The construction of the infiltration system was combined with the redevelopment of the site. During passage through the bioscreen, the concentration of HCH in the groundwater decreased from 600 μg/L to the detection limit of the individual HCH isomers (0.01 μg/L) after one year of operation. The concentration of the intermediate biodegradation products benzene and chlorobenzene increased and achieved steady state values of respectively 800 and 2700 μg/L. Benzene and chlorobenzene were treated aerobically on site in an existing wastewater treatment plant. By changing the infiltration regime, it is conclusively shown that HCH removal is the result of the biological degradation and stimulated by the addition of methanol as electron donor. To our knowledge, this is the first successful field demonstration of the stimulated transformation of HCH to intermediates in a full scale anaerobic in situ bioscreen, combined with an aerobic on site treatment to harmless end products. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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