Tatarstan Academy of science

Tatarstan Republic, Russia

Tatarstan Academy of science

Tatarstan Republic, Russia
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Akbari M.,Kazan Federal University | Andrianov S.N.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Kalachev A.A.,Kazan Federal University
Laser Physics | Year: 2017

The frequency conversion of light has proved to be an important instrument for communication, spectroscopy, imaging and information processing. We theoretically study the frequency conversion of a single photon via its interaction with a λ-type atom coupled to a microdisk. We show that the frequency conversion efficiency approaches unity even in the case of an interaction between clockwise and counterclockwise modes in the microdisk due to surface imperfections. By the use of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we get an effective Hamiltonian that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the system and obtain time and probability of frequency conversion in different conditions.

Nevzorova O.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Mukhamedshin D.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Galieva A.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Gataullin R.,Tatarstan Academy of science | And 2 more authors.
2016 7th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, SETIT 2016 | Year: 2017

There are several well-known corpus management systems (Sketch Engine, Manatee, EXMARaLDA, etc.). The system presented in this article has search functionalities comparable to those. However, it also takes into account certain specifics of Turkic languages. The Tatar corpus management system ( is specifically designed to work with Turkic linguistic corpora. Functionality offered by the corpus management system includes search of lexical units, morphological and lexical search, search of syntactic units, search of the n-gram based on grammar and others. The semantic model of the Tatar language data representation is the core of the system. The search is performed using open source tools (database management system MariaDB, Redis data store). The Tatar language has a complicated agglutinative morphology; and we consider the system of grammatical categories represented in grammatical annotation of the Tatar corpus as a key to semantics of the language. Selecting and combining grammatical, lexical and other parameters of a query, we may get certain sets of semantic samples from semantically unstructured corpus data. The main task of our research is detecting and describing a class of grammatically conditioned semantic phenomena and developing a system of queries to the corpus for extraction of these semantic phenomena. Experiments with queries to the Tatar corpus show that semantically relevant combinations of query parameters may differ by level of complexity. The results of the work may be used for document clustering and classification, as well as for Tatar grammar building and other purposes. © 2016 IEEE.

Khusainov A.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Khusainova A.,Kazan Federal University
Proceedings of the AINL FRUCT 2016 Conference | Year: 2017

In this paper we describe our recent work of creation speech human-machine interface for the Ta1ar language. Our work consists of three main elements: speech recognition system, speech synthesizer and language identification system. These systems will be used in mobile and desktop applications, for instance, machine translation system, smart assistant. © 2016 FRUCT.

Lomov S.P.,Penza State University of Architecture And Construction | Lyganov A.V.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Khisyametdinova A.A.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Spiridonova I.N.,Penza State University of Architecture And Construction | Solodkov N.N.,Penza State University of Architecture And Construction
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2017

The construction of the Volga–Kama cascade of water reservoirs and hydroelectric power stations in the middle of the 20th century resulted in the inundation of vast areas and the development of abrasion along the shores that threatens many monuments of the archaeological and cultural heritage. The soils buried under northernmost kurgans of the Lugovskaya culture dating back to the 15th–14th centuries BC (kurgan Komintern I) were studied on the surface of the second terrace of the Kama River near its confluence with the Volga River. Burial sites of kurgan Komintern III were subjected to destruction in 1981, and archaeological excavations of kurgan Komintern II were performed in 2008. The danger of complete disappearance of these archaeological sites necessitated their thorough study with the use of multiple methods, including special paleosol studies. The soils buried under the kurgans ceased to be active components of the soil cover about 3500 years ago. They preserve information on the paleoenvironmental conditions before their burying. The analysis of morphological features and physical, physicochemical, and chemical properties of the buried soils attests to their chernozemic nature. Background surface soils that have passed through the entire cycle of the Holocene pedogenesis have evolved since that time into gray forest soils (Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozems) under forest vegetation. These soils are characterized by the increased acidity of the surface horizons (pHКСl 4.3) and the development of lessivage. Data on the coefficients of mineral weathering in the buried paleosols and background surface soils attest to the identical precipitation both for the surface and buried soils in the Middle and Late Holocene. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

PubMed | University of Tübingen, Tatarstan Academy of science, Museu de Historia de Barcelona, State Office for Cultural Heritage Management Baden Wurttemberg and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell host & microbe | Year: 2016

Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement ofthe bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y.pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y.pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.

Krinari G.A.,Kazan Federal University | Khramchenkov M.G.,Kazan Federal University | Rakhmatulina Y.,Tatarstan Academy of science
Russian Geology and Geophysics | Year: 2014

A difference-spectrum method is proposed for the qualitative assessment of changes of illite-smectite structures accompanying the flooding of oil reservoirs. The method permits one to get an open system and reduce the application of procedures based on Markov's chain formalism. A computer simulation is made to obtain spectra by subtracting the spectrum of an ethylene glycol-saturated sample from the spectrum of an air-dried preparation throughout the entire range of concentrations of illite and smectite components with a short-range order factor R = 0 or R = 3.It has been established that only in the presence of filtration are the maximum and minimum of the spectra in the range of 12.5-9.4 A complicated by a number of local extrema, whose position is specified by the structure of intermediate phases. The flooding process first involves mixed-layer phases with R = 0, leading to a partial segregation of the structures into phase with one and two networks of interlayer H2O. When the secondary mica particles break, phases with R = 3 appear along the boundaries of nanoblocks, first only with 1 H2O and then only with 2 H2O in labile interspaces. Their coexistence with the phases R = 0 in the sample proves the existence of percolation effects due to two-phase filtration in the porous medium. The fully flooded reservoir is always dominated by a mechanical mixture of illite-smectite phases of different nature with R = 0 and with different ratios of components. Transformation of mica that can drastically reduce oil production begins long before the appearance of flooding zones, which are revealed by standard logging methods. © 2014 .

Askeyev O.V.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Sparks T.H.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Askeyev I.V.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Tishin D.V.,Kazan Federal University | Tryjanowski P.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2010

Aim To examine whether change in the timing of a large number of phenological events and their response to temperature differs between trophic levels during the period 1988-2008.Location In the vicinity of Kazan, Tatarstan Republic, Russia (55°45' N, 49°08' E).Methods Observations of the dates of first events of 22 plant phases, 8 insect phases, 3 herpetofauna phases and 26 migrant bird phases were examined using regression to assess changes over time and response to temperature. Differences between trophic levels were assessed using ANOVA.Results In comparison to studies from western Europe, relatively few phenological series (15) revealed a significant advance over time, but a much larger number (37), including all the herpetofauna and nearly all the plants, showed a response to temperature. Trends in birds were, on average, twice as great as those for plants, but plants had a significantly greater temperature response. Over the study period local temperatures had not risen significantly but some phenological change was still evident.Main conclusions Phenological change has been less marked in the eastern edge of Europe than in western and central Europe. This is compatible with a lack of significant local warming during the study period. A large number of species show strong responses to temperature so will be expected to advance if/when local temperatures do increase. In contrast to results from elsewhere in Europe, early events were not the most temperature responsive, suggesting local adaptation preventing precocious behaviour and the consequent dangers of sub-zero temperatures. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Khusainov A.,Kazan Federal University | Suleymanov D.,Tatarstan Academy of science
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

This paper describes a speech identification system for the Tatar, English and Russian languages. It also presents a newly created Tatar speech corpus, which is used for building a language model. The main idea is to investigate the potential of basic phonotactic approaches (i.e. PRLM-approach) when working with the Tatar language. The results indicate that the proposed system can be successfully employed for identifying the Tatar, English and Russian languages. © 2013 Springer International Publishing.

Ivanov V.,Kazan Federal University | Ivanov V.,National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" | Ivanov V.,Tatarstan Academy of science
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

We propose a method that facilitates a process of semiautomatic FrameNet construction. The method requires Google Books NGram dataset and WordNet or another thesaurus for a particular language. We evaluated the method for Russian ngrams. Due to a huge amount of available data the method does not require sophisticated natural language processing techniques (e.g. for word sense disambiguation), and it shows a promising result. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

Vershinin A.A.,Tatarstan Academy of science | Ignat'ev Y.A.,Tatarstan Academy of science
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2011

The characteristics of the respiration activity of leached chernozems under different land uses were studied. The use of soil-conservation technologies of crop cultivation led to an increase in the basal and substrate-induced respiration and in the content of the carbon of the microbial biomass. With respect to the microbial activity and the sustainability of the microbial pool, the soils were arranged into the following order: virgin soils → soils treated with soil-conservation technologies → soils treated with traditional methods. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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