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For the annual chess tournament, see Tata Steel Chess TournamentTata Steel Limited ) is an Indian multinational steel-making company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, and a subsidiary of the Tata Group. It was the 11th largest steel producing company in the world in 2013, with an annual crude steel capacity of 25.3 million tonnes, and the second largest private-sector steel company in India with an annual capacity of 9.7 million tonnes after SAILTata Steel has manufacturing operations in 26 countries, including Australia, China, India, the Netherlands, Singapore, Thailand and the United Kingdom, and employs around 80,500 people. Its largest plant is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. In 2007 Tata Steel acquired the UK-based steel maker Corus which was the largest international acquisition by an Indian company till that date. It was ranked 486th in the 2014 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. It was the seventh most valuable Indian brand of 2013 as per Brand Finance.On 16 February 2012 Tata Steel completed 100 years of steel making in India. Wikipedia.

Dual phase (DP) steels having a microstructure consists of a ferrite matrix, in which particles of martensite are dispersed, have received a great deal of attention due to their useful combination of high strength, high work hardening rate and ductility. In the present work, a microstructure based micromechanical model is developed to capture the deformation behavior, plastic strain localization and plastic instability of DP 590 steel. A microstructure based approach by means of representative volume element (RVE) is employed for this purpose. Dislocation based model is implemented to predict the flow behavior of the single phases. Plastic strain localization which arises due to incompatible deformation between the hard martensite and soft ferrite phases is predicted for DP 590 steel. Different failure modes arise from plastic strain localization in DP 590 steel are investigated on the actual microstructure by finite element method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Strain incompatibility among softer ferrite matrix and harder martensite phase arises during tensile straining due to difference in the flow characteristics of two phases. Strain incompatibility between ferrite and martensite phases during tensile straining results strain partitioning, inhomogenous deformation and finally deformation localization. The local deformation in ferrite phase is constrained by adjacent martensite islands which results in local stress triaxiality development. As martensite distribution varies within the microstructure, the stress triaxiality also varies in a range within the microstructure. Effect of martensite volume fraction on stress triaxiality and tensile deformation behavior on dual phase steels are examined in the current investigation by conducting rigorous finite element study on representative volume elements. The investigation reveals that with increasing martensite volume fraction the band of stress triaxiality distribution increases (i.e. locally stress triaxiality approaches towards plane strain condition) and as a consequence uniform elongation reduces. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Bohemen S.M.C.,Tata Steel
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2013

Analysis of dilatometry and X-ray diffraction data demonstrates that the thermally induced lattice expansion of face-centered and body-centered cubic iron in the temperature range 100-1600 K is best described by an exponential temperature dependence. The equations proposed are relatively simple though give much better predictions of the thermal expansion than linear approximations. As such they can be of great importance for engineering and metallurgical calculations, in particular to accurately determine the transformation kinetics from dilatometry data. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.92M | Year: 2016

The current fuel production and related industries are still heavily reliant on fossil fuels. BPs Statistical Review of World Energy published in 2014 states that the world has in reserves 892 billion tonnes of coal, 186 trillion cubic meters of natural gas, and 1688 billion barrels of crude oil. Although these represent huge reserves, taking into account todays level of extraction, would mean that coal would be exhausted in 113 years and natural gas and crude oil would be extracted by 2069 and 2067, respectively. In the meanwhile, the CO2 atmospheric concentration has increased from 270 ppm before the industrial revolution to 400 ppm today and its annual release is predicted to exceed 40GT/year by 2030. As the world population increases, breakthrough technologies tackling both fuel supply and carbon emission challenges are needed. The use of CO2 from, or captured in industrial processes, as a direct feedstock for chemical fuel production, are crucial for reducing green house gas emission and for sustainable fuel production with the existing resources. The aim of this project is to develop a breakthrough technology with integrated low cost bio-electrochemical processes to convert CO2 into liquid fuels for transportations, energy storage, heating and other applications. CO2 is firstly electrochemically reduced to formate with the electric energy from biomass and various wastes and other renewable sources by Bioelectrochemical systems (BES). The product then goes through a biotransformation SimCell reactor with microorganisms (Ralstonia) specialised in converting formate to medium chain alkanes using a Synthetic biology approach. The proposed technology will develop around the existing wastewater treatment facilities from for example, petroleum refineries and water industries, utilising the carbon source in wastewater, thus minimising the requirement to transport materials and use additional land. To tackle the grand challenges, a multidisciplinary team of five universities will work together to develop this groundbreaking technology. Our research targets two specific aspects on renewable low carbon fuel generation: 1) Use of biomass and wastewater as a source of energy and reducing power to synthesise chemicals from CO2. 2) Interface electrochemical and biological processes to achieve chemical energy-to-fuels transformation. To achieve the goal of this project, there are three major research challenges we need to tackle: 1. How to maximise the power output and energy from wastewater with Bioelectrochemical systems? 2. How to achieve CO2 conversion to medium chain alkanes through reduction to formate in Microbial electrolysis cells, and then SimCells? 3. Can we develop a viable, integrated, efficient and economic system combining bio-electrochemical and biological processes for sustainable liquid fuel production? To tackle these challenges, we need to maximise energy output from wastewater by using novel 3-D materials, to apply highly active electrochemical catalysts for CO2 reduction, to improve efficiency of SimCell reactor, and to integrate both processes and design a new system to convert CO2 to medium chain alkanes with high efficiency. In this study, rigorous LCA will be carried out to identify the optimum pathways for liquid biofuel production. We will also look at the policies on low carbon fuel production and explore the ways to influence low carbon fuel policies. Through the development of this innovative technology, we will bring positive impact on the UKs target for reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy.

Paul S.K.,Tata Steel
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2012

A micromechanics based approach by means of representative volume element (RVE) is employed to predict the flow behavior, plastic strain localization and plastic instability of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Boundary condition of 2D RVE during uniaxial tensile loading depends upon its position on tensile specimen. The ductile failure of DP steels under uniaxial tensile loading with different boundary conditions is predicted in the form of plastic strain localization without any prescribed damage/failure criteria for the individual phases. This indicates that the microstructure level inhomogeneity of the various constituent phases can be the key factor influencing the final ductility of the DP steels under different loading conditions. Comparisons of the computational results with experimental data available from literature suggest that the microstructure based modeling approach captures the overall macroscopic behavior of DP steels under different loading and boundary conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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