Bharat S.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Sahara J | Year: 2011
HIV/AIDS-related stigma is recognised as a major barrier to HIV prevention efforts and an impediment to mitigating its impact on individuals and communities. This paper reviews the existing research literature on AIDS stigma in India with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting major findings and identifying key gaps remaining. Thirty publications were identified through a careful search of which a majority focused on stigma assessment and very few on stigma measurement, conceptual aspects of stigma or stigma reduction interventions. A few standardised stigma measures are available but more are required to assess causes of stigma among general population and compounded and internalised stigma among positive people. Research exploring linkages between stigma and HIV services uptake or the effect of HIV care and treatment programs on stigma levels are largely missing and need to be prioritised. In addition, more research is needed to advance conceptual understanding of stigma within the cultural context of the country including research on the neglected groups such as, transgender people. Context-specific (health care, community) interventions are needed to address various forms of stigma - enacted, perceived, internalised and layered - including structural approaches besides inter-personal and information-based approaches. A major gap relates to meager research on developing and evaluating stigma reduction interventions and needs priority focus. Overall, the review recommends developing a national agenda on AIDS stigma research and interventions to help realise the government's goal of stigma reduction.
Singh K.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2014
Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of child mortality and disability in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The disease is vaccine preventable since 1941. Yet no major vaccination was available for public health intervention. After a massive breakout in 2005, the government launched vaccination programme in 11 most endemic districts and is planning to incorporate the vaccine in routine immunization with DPT (Diptheria, pertussis and tatanus) booster dose. The paper aims to estimate discounted net benefits and internal rate of return (IRR) to evaluate the economic feasibility for elimination of JE by utilizing available secondary information. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from different sources to estimate societal costs and benefits from JE interventions with a 5 yr project period. Total costs are estimated based on the unit cost of inputs used for interventions. The benefits are derived from resources saved due to the reduction of JE incidence. Net benefits and IRRs are estimated based on standard procedures used in the field of economics. Results: A total discounted net benefit of JE vaccination is 598.52 million with 291% IRR. The result suggests that for every rupee invested in vaccination at present will yield 11 benifit per person over five years. The regional benefits from the interventions will be greater than the sum of benefits gained by the individual country due to its nature of public goods. Conclusion: Vaccination against JE is a good investment opportunity despite all operational issues associated with it.
Dave A.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Violence Against Women | Year: 2013
This article attempts to describe the experiences of violated women and the struggles of social workers to contest violence against women in the Indian context. It begins with a brief account of an "indigenous model": the establishment of a service for violated women in India within the police force-the Special Cell on Violence Against Women. The article traces the strategic location, vision, growth, present position, expansion, and replication of the Special Cell in India, and discusses the necessity of working simultaneously with violated women, formal systems, and social structures; its contribution to the campaign for a Domestic Violence Act; and the resultant outcomes. The arduous nature of the work required for violated women and the women's own assessment of the Special Cells were accessed through a rigorous evaluation study, which is presented in the article, providing an answer and affirmation to the question: Why work with the Establishment-the State. © The Author(s) 2013.
Joseph J.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Disasters | Year: 2013
The measurement of vulnerability-defined here as the asymmetric response of disaster occurrences to hazardous events-signifies a key step towards effective disaster risk reduction and the promotion of a culture of disaster resilience. One of the reasons for not being able to do the same in a wider context is related to conceptual, definitional, and operational issues. This paper presents an operationally feasible framework for conducting this task and measures revealed macro vulnerability as a function of disaster risk and hazard probability. The probabilities of hazard and its perceived disaster risk were obtained from past data and from probability distributions. In this paper, the corresponding analytical framework is constructed using the case study of floods in Assam, India. The proposed indicator will help policymakers to draw on available macro-level data to identify the regions that are vulnerable to disasters, where micro-level disaster vulnerability assessments could be performed in greater detail. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
George M.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2015
I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.