Richmond, New Zealand
Richmond, New Zealand

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Harmsworth G.R.,Landcare Research | Young R.G.,Cawthron Institute | Walker D.,Tiakina Te Taiao Ltd | Clapcott J.E.,Cawthron Institute | James T.,Tasman District Council
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2011

Scientific monitoring of river health is well established and has a significant role to play in environmental assessment by communities, managers and policy makers. Cultural indicators help to articulate cultural values, assess the state of the environment from a cultural perspective and assist with establishing a role for Maori in environmental monitoring. We reviewed the philosophies behind cultural and scientific monitoring of river health and compared the results from the two approaches at 25 sites in the Motueka and Riwaka catchments. Both scientific and cultural indicators suggested a decrease in river health in relation to increased land-use pressure. There were also correlations between the results from the two approaches suggesting cultural indicators could be used in a similar manner as scientific indicators to set environmental benchmarks. Using scientific approaches alongside culturally based monitoring provides a wealth of knowledge to understand better what we mean by river health. The two approaches can be regarded as complementary and reflect two different knowledge systems and perspectives. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Fenemor A.,Landcare Research | Phillips C.,Landcare Research | Allen W.,Learning for Sustainability | Young R.G.,Cawthron Institute | And 16 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2011

This paper provides an overview of the Motueka integrated catchment management (ICM) research programme. This research was based on the thesis that achieving ecosystem resilience at a catchment scale requires active measures to develop community resilience. We define a generic adaptive planning and action process, with associated knowledge management and stakeholder involvement processes, and illustrate those processes with observations from five research themes: (1) water allocation; (2) land use effects on water; (3) land and freshwater impacts on the coast; (4) integrative tools and processes for managing cumulative effects; and (5) building human capital and facilitating community action. Our research clearly illustrates the benefits for effective decision-making of carrying out catchment scale science and management within collaborative processes which patiently develop trusting relationships. We conclude that coastal catchments should be managed as a holistic continuum from ridge tops to the sea and that some processes like floods or loss of community resilience have decadal consequences, which support the need for long-term monitoring and investment. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Lawrence J.,New Zealand Climate Change Research Institute | Sullivan F.,Local Government New Zealand | Lash A.,Kapiti Coast District Council | Ide G.,Hawkes Bay Regional Council | And 2 more authors.
Local Environment | Year: 2015

Adaptation to climate change has been reviewed in several developed nations, but in none where consideration of the effects of climate change is required by statute and devolved to local government. We examine the role of institutional arrangements, the players operating under them, the barriers and enablers for adaptation decision-making in the developed nation of New Zealand. We examine how the roles and responsibilities between national, regional and local governments influence the ability of local government to deliver long-term flexible responses to changing climate risk. We found that the disciplinary practices of law, engineering and planning, within legal frameworks, result in the use of static mechanisms which create inflexible responses to changing risk. Several enablers are identified that could create greater integration between the different scales of government, including better use of national policy instruments, shared professional experience, standardised information collection and risk assessment methods that address uncertainties. The framing of climate risk as dynamic and changing that differentiates activities over their lifetime, development of mechanisms to fund transitions towards transformational change, are identified as necessary conditions for delivering flexible responses over time. © 2013, © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Allen W.,Learning for Sustainability | Fenemor A.,Landcare Research | Harmsworth G.,Landcare Research | Young R.G.,Cawthron Institute | And 6 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2011

Success at integrated catchment management (ICM) requires the ongoing participation of different stakeholders in an adaptive and learning-based management process. However, this can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social process aspects required. We review emerging lessons around how to engage stakeholders in ways that support social learning. We focus on the experience of an ICM research programme based in the Motueka catchment in New Zealand and provide a simple framework for distinguishing a range of conversations across different communities of practice. We highlight the need to use multiple engagement approaches to address different constituent needs and opportunities, and to encourage the informal conversations that spring up around these. We then illustrate the range of platforms for dialogue and learning that were used in the programme during 10 years of ICM research. Finally, a number of lessons are described from across the programme to guide research leaders and managers seeking to improve collaboration in other integrated science, management and policy initiatives. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Gusyev M.A.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Toews M.W.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Daughney C.J.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Hong T.,London South Bank University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology New Zealand | Year: 2012

The effects of various groundwater abstraction scenarios on stream flow and groundwater levels in the Upper Moteuka River catchment have been investigated using a groundwater-river interaction model. The model operated on a daily time step and had two components: a FEFLOW groundwater model to simulate groundwater losses and gains from the river, and a custombuilt river model to route river flow and to calculate river water levels using Manning's equation. For the 'base case', the model input included climate and abstraction data for the period 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2003, and the model was calibrated by adjusting hydraulic conductivity and streambed conductance to achieve a good match to observed groundwater levels, river flows and river water levels measured in this same time period. Thereafter the calibrated model was then used to predict groundwater levels, river flows and river water levels for six different scenarios: 1) actual groundwater abstraction at the end of 2008; 2) groundwater abstraction assuming the maximum take specified on each existing water permit; 3) groundwater abstraction assuming additional permitted takes sufficient to allow complete irrigation over all potentially irrigable land; 4) actual groundwater abstraction at the end of 2008 in roughly half of the model area combined with complete irrigation of all potentially irrigable land in the remainder of the model area; and 5) actual groundwater abstraction at the end of 2008 assuming river bed elevations were 0.3 m higher or lower than current elevations. For all scenarios, modelled mean and median river flows during the irrigation season were at most 5% less than for the base case, and differences outside the irrigation season were even smaller. Only the third of the tested scenarios resulted in modelled river flows that may breach minimum flow requirements at some locations. For all scenarios, modelled groundwater levels were no more than 1 m below the base case, with the largest drops occurring at four locations along the margins of the catchment and near pumping centres. The results suggest that a groundwater pumping scheme could incorporate existing and new abstraction while still ensuring that estimated low flow conditions are not breached during the irrigation season, and the scenario modelling results can be used by Tasman District Council for groundwater allocation management. © New Zealand Hydrological Society (2012).

Hamilton S.,Aquatic Informatics | Doyle M.,Tasman District Council | Cordery I.,University of New South Wales
The Art and Science of Water - 36th Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, HWRS 2015 | Year: 2015

The benefits of hydrological information vastly outweigh investments made in water monitoring. Whereas investment in monitoring is tightly constrained by administrative processes, hydrological information provides unbounded value by supporting the beneficial resolution of many water issues. Additional funding is required to close the growing gap between water monitoring capability and the rapidly evolving need for trusted hydrological information to be used both in real-time, and for evidence-based policies, planning, and engineering design. Inadequate funding is a shared problem. Shared solutions to this problem benefit everyone. The public benefits of water monitoring, the value of hydrological information, and the differences in the security of funding are considered in the context of sharply contrasting climate, geography, economy and governance. The need to continually communicate the benefits of water monitoring is discussed and some simple examples of communication strategies are provided to help achieve sustainable funding for water monitoring. © 2015, Engineers Australia. All rights reserved.

Zemansky G.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Hong Y.-S.T.,London South Bank University | Rose J.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Song S.-H.,Korean Rural Research Institute | Thomas J.,Tasman District Council
Journal of Hydrology New Zealand | Year: 2012

Climate change has the potential to cause a variety of effects on water resources. It is necessary to assess the potential effects of climate change on hydrologic systems to provide the information needed to develop rational management strategies to cope with such change. This paper reports on a case study of the Waimea Plains catchment located in the Tasman region, South Island, New Zealand. Two methods were used to assess the effects of climate change: (1) trend analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data from routine monitoring systems using the Mann-Kendall method; and (2) modelling of projected effects as a result of standard greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Trend analysis results were mixed. Statistically significant trends were noted for some climate and hydrologic variables but not others. Modelling started with regionally downscaled climate projections based on the IPCC A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Modelling projections focused on downstream Waimea River flow and groundwater levels for the critical dry period of a record drought year. Both mechanistic computer modelling (MODFLOW) and artificial intelligence modelling were used. Key inputs for this model, such as rainfall recharge, were obtained from artificial intelligence modelling. Artificial intelligence modelling was also applied directly to project stream flow and groundwater levels. Modelling results were similar for both mechanistic and artificial intelligence models. Water usage increased but the decrease in rainfall recharge of groundwater was largely made up by increased stream recharge. The net result was substantial impact on stream flow but only minor effects on groundwater levels. Recommendations from this study include improved routine monitoring of hydrologic variables and expanded modelling efforts in other catchments under a wide variety of hydrologic and climate change conditions. © New Zealand Hydrological Society (2012).

Paynter Q.,Landcare Research | Forgie S.A.,Landcare Research | Winks C.J.,Landcare Research | Peterson P.G.,Landcare Research | And 3 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2012

The boneseed leafroller moth Tortrix s.l. sp. 'chyrsanthemoides' (BSLR), originating from Western Cape Province, South African was introduced into New Zealand for the biological control (biocontrol) of a South African shrub boneseed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera but has established only patchily. We investigated factors hypothesized to influence its establishment success. Field surveys and manipulative experiments ruled out climate as a factor and indicated that establishment failure was associated with predation, mainly by invasive ants of South American (Linepithema humile), and Australian (Doleromyrma darwiniana; Nylanderia sp.) origin that were attracted to invasive honeydew-secreting scale insects (Parasaissetia nigra and Saissetia oleae) found on boneseed. An exclusion experiment showed that unless invertebrate predators (mainly invasive ants and Vespula and Polistes wasps) were excluded, BSLR larvae did not survive to maturity on boneseed plants infested with scale insects. This study supports the notion that insect agents that feed externally on the host-plant are susceptible to predation in the presence of ant-tended Homoptera and that if ant-tended Homoptera are present, candidate agents should be prioritized accordingly. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Stewart M.K.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Stevens G.,Tasman District Council | Thomas J.T.,Tasman District Council | van der Raaij R.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Trompetter V.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences
Journal of Hydrology New Zealand | Year: 2011

Nitrate concentrations exceeding Ministry of Health potable limits (11.3 mg/L nitrate-N) have been a problem for Waimea Plains groundwater for a number of years. This work uses nitrogen isotopes to identify the input sources of the nitrate. The results in relation to nitrate contours have revealed two kinds of nitrate contamination in Waimea Plains groundwater - diffuse contamination in the eastern plains area (in the vicinity and south of Hope) attributed to the combined effects of the use of inorganic fertilisers and manures for market gardening and other land uses, and point source contamination attributed to a large piggery to the south of Hope. Once nitrate is introduced to a groundwater system it can take many years for it to be flushed out. Tritium measurements in wells are interpreted to give mean residence times, and the spread of residence times around the mean, for groundwater in different parts of the plains. Mean ages are youngest in the area south of Hope, where nitrate concentrations are highest, and increase to the south, west and north. The age distributions have been used to produce a nitrate input history for the Upper and Lower Confined Aquifers by simulating the nitrate measurements in the various wells. The timing of the derived nitrate input history shows that both the diffuse sources and the point source were present from the 1940s, which is anecdotally the time from which there were increased nitrate sources on the plains. The large piggery was closed in the mid-1980s. Unfortunately, major sources of nitrate (including the piggery) were located on the main groundwater recharge zone of the plains in the past, leading to contamination of the Upper and Lower Confined Aquifers. The contamination travelled gradually northwards, affecting wells on the scale of decades. Input of nitrate to the groundwater has been decreasing since about 1988 due to closure of the piggery. The resulting decrease in nitrate concentrations is now also gradually travelling northward. Groundwater to the south and west already had relatively low nitrate because of river and/or rainfall recharge with low nitrate concentrations. Improved monitoring and practices (e.g., best management practices and nutrient budgeting) need to be encouraged among market gardeners and other land users, taking special account of the location of the groundwater recharge areas around and south of Hope. © New Zealand Hydrological Society (2011).

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