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Sullivan S.J.,Mayo Vaccine Research Group | Jacobson R.M.,Mayo Vaccine Research Group | Jacobson R.M.,Mayo Medical School | Dowdle W.R.,Task Force for Global Health | And 2 more authors.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2010

Within 2 months of its discovery last spring, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus, currently referred to as 2009 H1N1, caused the first influenza pandemic in decades. The virus has caused disproportionate disease among young people with early reports of virulence similar to that of seasonal influenza. This clinical review provides an update encompassing the virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Because information about this virus, its prevention, and treatment are rapidly evolving, readers are advised to seek additional information. We performed a literature search of PubMed using the following keywords: H1N1, influenza, vaccine, pregnancy, children, treatment, epidemiology, and review. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review on the basis of their relevance. Recent studies and articles were preferred. © 2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Source


Patel M.,Task Force for Global Health | Zipursky S.,World Health Organization | Orenstein W.,Emory University | Garon J.,Emory University | Zaffran M.,World Health Organization
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2015

In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Marks M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chi K.-H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Vahi V.,Ministry of Health and Medical Services | Pillay A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization’s yaws eradication program. © 2014, Emerging Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved. Source


Liese B.,Georgetown University | Rosenberg M.,Task Force for Global Health | Schratz A.,Georgetown University
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Neglected tropical diseases represent one of the most serious burdens to public health. Many can be treated cost-effectively, yet they have been largely ignored on the global health policy agenda until recently. In this first paper in the Series we review the fragmented structure of elimination and control programmes for these diseases, starting with the ambiguous definition of a neglected tropical disease. We describe selected international control initiatives and present their effect, governance arrangements, and financing mechanisms, including substantial drug-donation programmes. We also discuss efforts to exploit shared features of these diseases by integration of selected control activities within countries, thus creating economies of scope. Finally we address the challenges, resulting from the diversity of disease control approaches and governance structures-both nationally and internationally-and provide some suggestions for the way forward. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hinman A.R.,Task Force for Global Health | Orenstein W.A.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Schuchat A.,National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

During 1946-2005, vaccine-preventable diseases were the topic of approximately 20% of all epidemic-assistance investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Both in the United States and abroad, current and former Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have played a critical role in describing the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases, contributing to development of immunization policies, participating in the implementation of immunization programs, and establishing effective means for assessing adverse events following immunization. As newer vaccines are developed and introduced, they will continue to play similar roles and most likely will be involved increasingly in investigations of the factors that affect people's willingness to accept vaccination for themselves or their children. © 2011 The Author. Source

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