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Tartu, Estonia

Tamme T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Reinik M.,Tartu Laboratory | Pussa T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

The influence of storage conditions on nitrate and nitrite contents, pH, and total viable bacterial count of raw vegetable juices was studied. Three different types of juices from an Estonian small-scale producer and five different types of home-made juices were analysed. Analyses were performed immediately after opening the commercial juice packages and immediately after preparation of a home-made juice. Additionally, samples were taken after open storage of a juice at the refrigerator and ambient temperatures during 24 and 48 h. The biggest changes in nitrate and nitrite contents were found during storage of carrot, beetroot and radish juices. During 48 h of storage at ambient temperature, the mean increases of nitrite content in home-made carrot, beetroot and radish juices were from 0.1 to 187, from 2.1 to 578, and from 0.5 to 259 mg l -1, respectively. In the case of commercial lightly pasteurized products, the biggest increase of nitrite content, from 3.2 to 11 mg l -1, was found in red beetroot juice. After 48 h of storage at refrigerator temperature, the changes of nitrite and nitrate were smaller. In the case of consumption of 300 ml of home-made carrot juice, with a nitrate and nitrite content of 64 and 110 mg l -1, respectively, stored for 24 h at ambient temperature, the average intake was 8% and 846% of the acceptable daily intake of nitrates and nitrites, respectively. After consumption of 50 ml of the same carrot juice by children (1-2 years of age) the average intake of nitrates and nitrites was 7% and 733% of the acceptable daily intake, respectively. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Tamme T.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Reinik M.,Tartu Laboratory | Roasto M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Meremae K.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Kiis A.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2010

The content of nitrate in leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber was determined during the years 2006-2008. All samples of Estonian origin, except white cabbage, were grown under cover. Seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations were observed in lettuce and spinach. Nitrate concentrations in lettuce were 22% and those in spinach were 24% higher in winter crops compared with samples collected in summer. The mean nitrate level was 3023 mg kg-1 for fresh lettuce and 2337 mg kg-1 for spinach. On average, 11.6% of fresh lettuce and spinach samples nitrate concentration exceeded the maximum level specified in European Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006. The mean levels were 999 mg kg-1 for imported iceberg lettuce and 1287 mg kg-1 for frozen spinach, which are below the maximum European Commission limits. Parsley, dill, basil, thyme, and rucola contained high concentrations of nitrate from mean levels of 2134 mg kg-1 for parsley up to 8150 mg kg-1 for rucola. Mean nitrate concentrations ranged from 382 to 1115 mg kg-1 for white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, respectively. The per capita mean daily intake of nitrates related to the consumption of leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber for the whole Estonian population was 31.3 mg day-1, which comprised 14.2% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Haljasorg T.,University of Tartu | Saame J.,University of Tartu | Kipper K.,University of Tartu | Teearu A.,University of Tartu | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A wide range of anthropogenic pollutants that possess serious environmental and health risks are known. One type of these harmful substances that have become a focus of interest during the past decade are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), which are extensively used in industry for different purposes. Due to the harmful effects that these compounds might cause in living organisms, EFSA and EU CONTAM panel have issued a monitoring program for PFAAs in foodstuffs. This has given rise to intense research dedicated to the analysis of PFAAs over the past few years. This work focuses on chromatographic analysis of three PFAAs in fish. The analytes, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are commonly associated with the production of fluoropolymers. Fluorinated alcohols are used as eluent components, and their possible advantages as eluent modifiers in LC-MS analysis of PFAAs, alternative retention mechanism and enhanced ionization efficiency, are examined. The analyzed fish samples originating from Estonian fresh and marine waters had low contents of PFAAs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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