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Tarsus, Turkey

Kapur B.,Cukurova University | Pasquale S.,Head of Water Resources | Tekin S.,Cukurova University | Todorovic M.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

This study investigates the impact of the expected climate changes in the Apulia region (Southern Italy) for the next 100 years on the climatic water balance variations, climatic classifications and crop water requirements. The overall results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2.5°C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation should not change significantly on yearly basis, although, a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD) is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification (1957), the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decrease of humid areas and increase of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR), calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%), wheat (61%), grapevine (49%), and citrus (48%) and it is slightly lower for maize (35%), sorghum (34%), sunflower (33%), tomato (31%), and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%). © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Sezen S.M.,Tarsus Research Institute | Celikel G.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Tekin S.,Cukurova University | Kapur B.,Cukurova University
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

Global warming and resulting drought is the most important constraint affecting plant production in the Mediterranean Region. Therefore, effective management of scarce water resources is of paramount importance in this region. This research was conducted to determine the optimal irrigation strategy for drip irrigated fresh market tomato grown in different soilless culture in a glasshouse in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Volcanic ash, peat and their mixture were used as growth media. Four different irrigation levels (WL1=75%; WL2=100%; WL3=125% and WL4=150% of Class A Pan evaporation) and two watering frequencies (once and twice daily applications) were evaluated. Highest yield and fruit number were obtained from the ash+peat mixture (1:1) with twice a day watering at WL4 irrigation level. Soluble solids of tomato fruit decreased with increasing available water. The highest irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) value of 121.4 kg m-3 was obtained from once a day irrigation WL1 irrigation level with peat+ash (1:1). IWUE decreased in all treatments as the amount of irrigation water increased. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Sezen S.M.,Tarsus Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Kapur B.,Cukurova University | Tekin S.,Cukurova University
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

This study compares the effects of different irrigation regimes on seed yield and oil yield quality and water productivity of sprinkler and drip irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on silty-clay-loam soils in 2006 and 2007 in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. In sprinkler irrigation a line-source system was used in order to create gradually varying irrigation levels. Irrigation regimes consisted of full irrigation (I1) and three deficit irrigation treatments (I2, I3 and I4), and rain-fed treatment (I5). In the drip system, irrigation regimes included full irrigation (FI-100), three deficit irrigation treatments (DI-25, DI-50, DI-75), partial root zone drying (PRD-50) and rain-fed treatment (RF). Irrigations were scheduled at weekly intervals both in sprinkler and drip irrigation, based on soil water depletion within a 0.90m root zone in FI-100 and I1 plots. Irrigation treatments influenced significantly (P<0.01) sunflower seed and oil yields, and oil quality both with sprinkler and drip systems. Seed yields decreased with increasing water stress levels under drip and sprinkler irrigation in both experimental years. Seed yield response to irrigation varied considerably due to differences in soil water contents and spring rainfall distribution in the experimental years. Although PRD-50 received about 36% less irrigation water as compared to FI-100, sunflower yield was reduced by an average of 15%. PRD-50 produced greater seed and oil yields than DI-50 in the drip irrigation system. Yield reduction was mainly due to less number of seeds per head and lower seed mass. Soil water deficits significantly reduced crop evapotranspiration (ET), which mainly depends on irrigation amounts. Significant linear relationships (R2=0.96) between ET and oil yield (Y) were obtained in each season. The seed yield response factors (kyseed) were 1.24 and 0.86 for the sprinkler and 1.19 and 1.06 for the drip system in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The oil yield response factor (kyoil) for sunflower was found to be 1.08 and 1.49 for both growing seasons for the sprinkler and 1.36 and 1.25 for the drip systems, respectively. Oil content decreased with decreasing irrigation amount. Consistently greater values of oil content were obtained from the full irrigation treatment plots. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid) and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid) fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. Water stress caused an increase in oleic acid with a decrease in linoleic acid contents. The palmitic and stearic acid concentrations decreased under drought conditions. Water productivity (WP) values were significantly affected by irrigation amounts and ranged from 0.40 to 0.71kgm-3 in 2006, and from 0.69 to 0.91kgm-3 in 2007. The PRD-50 treatment resulted in the greatest WP (1.0kgm-3) and irrigation water productivity (IWP) (1.4kgm-3) in both growing seasons. The results revealed that under water scarcity situation, PRD-50 in drip and I2 in sprinkler system provide acceptable irrigation strategies to increase sunflower yield and quality. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sezen S.M.,Tarsus Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Tekin S.,Cukurova University
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2011

This study examines the effects of different partial root zone drying and deficit irrigation regimes on seed and oil yield quality and water use of drip-irrigated sunflower under field conditions in 2006 and 2007 in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of full irrigation (FI-100) and three deficit irrigation treatments (DI-25, DI-50, DI-75), and partial root zone drying (PRD-50) and rain-fed treatment (RF). Irrigation regimes significantly (P<0.01) influenced sunflower seed and oil yields and yield components. Although PRD-50 received about 36% less irrigation water as compared to FI-100, sunflower yield was reduced by an average of 15%. PRD-50 produced higher seed and oil yield than DI-50. Irrigation regimes had significantly different effects on yield components and some quality parameters such as the head diameter, number of seeds per head, 1000 seed weight and oil, and plant height at harvest. Yield reduction was mainly due to a lower number of seeds per head and lower seed weights. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid) and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid) fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. The PRD-50 treatment resulted in highest WUE (1.0kgm -3) and IWUE (1.4kgm -3) in both growing seasons. The results revealed that under a water scarcity situation, PRD-50 is an acceptable irrigation strategy to increase sunflower yield and quality. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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