Neuropharmacology | Year: 2012
The interaction of 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-desMe-C) and gymnodimine with several nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated. Interaction at the muscarinic receptors was minimal. At nicotinic receptors, both SPX-desMe-C and gymnodimine displayed greatest affinity for the α7 receptor. The rank order for binding affinity (Ki) for SPX-desMe-C was α7 > α6β3β4α5 >> rat α3β4, α1βγδ > α4β4, human α3β4 > human α4β2 > rat α4β2 and for gymnodimine was α7, α6β3β4α5 > rat α3β4 > human α3β4, α4β4 > rat α4β2, human α4β2 > α1βγδ. Both molecules antagonized agonist-induced nicotinic responses. The antagonism rank order of potency (IC(50)) for SPX-desMe-C was α7 > low sensitivity (LS) α4β2 > human α3β4 > high sensitivity (HS) α4β2, α1βγδ > α4β4 > rat α3β4 and for gymnodimine was LS α4β2 > human α3β4 > α7 > HS α4β2 > α4β4 > rat α3β4 > α1βγδ. Neither gymnodimine nor SPX-desMe-C antagonism could be surmounted by increasing concentrations of nicotine. To elucidate the nature of this insurmountable blockade, we carried out homology modelling and molecular docking studies of both ligands with α7 nAChR. Their very high binding affinity results from very tight hydrophobic enclosures, in addition to previously reported hydrogen-bond and cation-π interactions. Also, the higher the hydrophilic surface area of the binding site of nAChRs, the weaker the binding affinity of both ligands. Together these results show the targets of action are nicotinic and define these marine toxins as additional tools to advance our understanding regarding interactions between antagonists and the nAChR ligand binding domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Targacept | Date: 2015-02-24
Novel vinylazacycloalkane compounds of Formula (I) are disclosed. The compounds are ligands of various nAChRs. The compounds and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be used to prepare pharmaceutical compositions and/or medicaments intended to prevent or treat disorders associated with dysfunction of nAChRs, especially within the central nervous system or the gastrointestinal system. Examples of types of disorders that can be treated include neurodegenerative disorders, including central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimers disease, cognitive disorders, motor disorders such as Parkinsons disease, drug addiction, behavioral disorders and inflammatory disorders within the gastrointestinal system. The compounds can also serve as analgesics in the treatment of acute, chronic or recurrent pain.
Targacept | Date: 2014-03-12
A pharmaceutical composition includes a therapeutically effective amount of exo-S-mecamylamine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, substantially free of exo-R-mecamylamine in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Preferably the amount is about 0.5 mg to about 20 mg. Medical conditions are treated by administering a therapeutically effective amount of exo-S-mecamylamine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, substantially free of its exo-R-mecamylamine, said amount being sufficient to ameliorate the medical condition. The medical conditions include but are not limited to substance addiction (involving nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, amphetamine, opiate, other psychostimulant and a combination thereof), aiding smoking cessation, treating weight gain associated with smoking cessation, hypertension, hypertensive crisis, Tourettes Syndrome and other tremors, cancer (such as small cell lung cancer), atherogenic profile, neuropsychiatric disorders (such as bipolar disorder, depression, an anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, a seizure disorder, Parkinsons disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohns disease, autonomic dysreflexia, and spasmogenic intestinal disorders.
Targacept | Date: 2015-08-21
The present invention relates to the stereospecific synthesis of (R)-5-((E)-2-pyrrolidin-3-ylvinyl)pyrimidine, its salt forms, and novel polymorphic forms of these salts.
Targacept | Date: 2015-07-10
Patients susceptible to or suffering from conditions and disorders, such as central nervous system disorders, are treated by administering to a patient in need thereof compositions that are hydroxybenzoate salts of E-metanicotine-type compounds. The formation of hydroxybenzoate salts of the E-metanicotine compounds is also useful in purifying the E-metanicotine compounds, as the hydroxybenzoate salts tend to crystallize out, leaving impurities such as Z-metanicotine compounds, and compounds where the double bond has migrated, in solution. If desired, the hydroxybenzoate salts can be converted to either the free base (the E-metanicotine compound) or to another pharmaceutically acceptable salt form.
Targacept | Date: 2015-07-22
The present invention relates to the hemi-galactarate, oxalate and di-p-toluoyl-D-tartrate salt forms of (R)-3-((E)-2-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)vinyl)-5-(tetrahydropyran-4-yloxy)pyridine or hydrates or solvates thereof, compositions comprising these salt and their use for treating or preventing a NNR mediated disorder.
Targacept | Date: 2015-08-27
The present invention relates to compounds that modulate nicotinic receptors as non-competitive antagonists, methods for their synthesis, methods for use, and their pharmaceutical compositions.
Targacept | Date: 2014-10-24
The present invention relates to compounds that bind to and modulate the activity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to processes for preparing these compounds, to pharmaceutical compositions containing these compounds, and to methods of using these compounds for treating a wide variety of conditions and disorders, including those associated with dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS).
Targacept | Date: 2014-08-25
The present invention relates to (2S,3R)N-(2-((3-pyridinyl)methyl)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide, novel salt forms thereof, methods for its preparation, novel intermediates, and methods for treating a wide variety of conditions and disorders, including those associated with dysfunction of the central and autonomic nervous systems.
Targacept | Date: 2014-11-24
Compounds, pharmaceutical compositions including the compounds, and methods of preparation and use thereof are disclosed. The compounds are amide compounds which can be prepared from certain heteroaryl carboxylic acids and certain diazabicycloalkanes. The compounds exhibit selectivity for, and bind with high affinity to, neuronal nicotinic receptors of the 42 subtype in the central nervous system (CNS). The compounds and compositions can be used to treat and/or prevent a wide variety of conditions or disorders, particularly CNS disorders. The compounds can: (i) alter the number of nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the brain of the patient, (ii) exhibit neuroprotective effects, and (iii) when employed in effective amounts, not result in appreciable adverse side effects (e.g. side effects such as significant increases in blood pressure and heart rate, significant negative effects upon the gastrointestinal tract, and significant effects upon skeletal muscle).