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Rani G.M.,Taramani Institutional Area
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2010

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Pachamalai Hills to document Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Management at Pachamalai, rich in both cultural and biodiversity rich area. The tribal women and men of this hill are well known for their knowledge of the medicinal properties of the endemic flora. They have been using specific medicinal plants to cure specific ailments over centuries. The knowledge of the tribal people associated with the treatment of various animal diseases, crop pest management and human cure using medicinal plants is fast disappearing due to urbanization and modernization and tendency to gradual migration to the mainstream. There is an urgent need to study and document the existing knowledge for posterity. This paper presents information on indigenous knowledge associated with the use of plant species to cure animal, human and crop pest and disease management practice followed by Malayali tribals. Source


Rajalakshmi S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Agricultural productivity is majorly impacted due to various abiotic stresses, particularly salinity and drought. Halophytes serve as an excellent resource for identifying and developing new crop systems, as these grow very luxuriously in very high saline soils. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in such plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. Use of modern tools of 'omics' analyses and small RNA sequencing has helped to gain insights into the complex plant stress responses. Salinity tolerance being a multigenic trait requires a combination of strategies and techniques to successfully develop improved crops varieties. Many transgenic crops are being developed through genetic transformation. Besides marker-assisted breeding/QTL approaches are also being used to improve abiotic stress tolerance. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the utilization of halophytes as a source of genes for genetic improvement in abiotic stress tolerance of crops. © 2012 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Source


Swaminathan M.S.,Taramani Institutional Area
New Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies. © 2010. Source


Mishra S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Chaudhury S.S.,M S Swaminathan Research Foundation | Arivudai Nambi V.,Taramani Institutional Area
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

Koraput is known to be a centre of origin and diversity of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and recently recognized as one of the agro-biodiversity hot spots in India. Tribal and rural farm families in Koraput raise food crops using local seeds and have a repository of traditional seed selection practices. While farmers have valuable traditional knowledge, there is a lack of support mechanisms and relevant training to enhance their skills in the seed selection process. This paper examines the impact of training on the knowledge and skill of farmers' with a specific focus on seed selection practices and its management. The study brings out the significance of capacity building of farm families through Training of Trainers (TOT) programme. The impact of training reveals enhanced knowledge, skill and decision making among farmers with regard to seed selection. Pure and quality seeds helped to improve agricultural productivity and ensured household food security. Purified seeds of landraces cultivated in different land categories fetched 30-50 % higher prices. Designation of such farmers as Primary Trainers provides them recognition and a distinct identity in their community and their services made use by the KKRGC and Village Knowledge Centre (VKC). To make the practice sustainable, there is a need for supportive Government policies to maintain and develop traditional seeds in situ and on farm. Source


Rameshkumar N.,Taramani Institutional Area | Lang E.,DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH | Nair S.,Taramani Institutional Area
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2010

A facultatively anaerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, strain MSSRF40T, was isolated from roots of mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain MSSRF40T was shown to belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae, most closely related to Cronobacter muytjensii E603T (97.2% sequence similarity), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens LMG 2683T (97.1 %), E. radicincitans D5/23T (97.1 %) and E. ludwigii EN-119T (97.0 %). Sequence analysis of rpoB, gyrB and hsp60 genes showed that strain MSSRF40T had relatively low sequence similarity (<91, <84 and <90 %) to recognized species of different genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae and formed an independent phyletic lineage in all phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and hsp60 genes, clearly indicating that strain MSSRF40T could not be affiliated to any of the recognized genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH and C18:1ω7c, similar to those of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol%. Phylogenetic distinctiveness and phenotypic differences from its phylogenetic neighbours indicated that strain MSSRF40T represents a novel species and genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, for which the name Mangrovibacter plantisponsor gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mangrovibacter plantisponsor is strain MSSRF40T (=LMG 24236T =DSM 19579T). © 2010 IUMS. Source

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