Taramani Institutional Area

Chennai, India

Taramani Institutional Area

Chennai, India

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Kavitha K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | George S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Venkataraman G.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area
Biochimie | Year: 2010

Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Avicennia marina, a halophytic mangrove, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in salt stress tolerance. A large scale random EST sequencing from a salt stressed leaf tissue cDNA library of one month old A. marina plants resulted in identification of a clone showing maximum homology to Monodehydroascorbate reductase (Am-MDAR). MDAR plays a key role in regeneration of ascorbate from monodehydroascorbate for ROS scavenging. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco of this salt inducible Am-MDAR. A transit peptide at the N-terminal region of Am-MDAR suggested that it encodes a chloroplastic isoform. The chloroplastic localization was confirmed by stable transformation and expression of the Am-MDAR-GFP fusion protein in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Am-MDAR survived better under conditions of salt stress compared to untransformed control plants. Assays of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle revealed an enhanced activity of MDAR and ascorbate peroxidase whereas the activity of dehyroascorbate reductase was reduced under salt stressed and unstressed conditions in Am-MDAR transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed an enhanced redox state of ascorbate and reduced levels of malondialdehyde indicating its enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for genetic engineering of economically important plants tolerant to salt stress. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Rameshkumar N.,Taramani Institutional Area | Lang E.,DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH | Nair S.,Taramani Institutional Area
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2010

A facultatively anaerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, strain MSSRF40T, was isolated from roots of mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain MSSRF40T was shown to belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae, most closely related to Cronobacter muytjensii E603T (97.2% sequence similarity), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens LMG 2683T (97.1 %), E. radicincitans D5/23T (97.1 %) and E. ludwigii EN-119T (97.0 %). Sequence analysis of rpoB, gyrB and hsp60 genes showed that strain MSSRF40T had relatively low sequence similarity (<91, <84 and <90 %) to recognized species of different genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae and formed an independent phyletic lineage in all phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and hsp60 genes, clearly indicating that strain MSSRF40T could not be affiliated to any of the recognized genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH and C18:1ω7c, similar to those of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol%. Phylogenetic distinctiveness and phenotypic differences from its phylogenetic neighbours indicated that strain MSSRF40T represents a novel species and genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, for which the name Mangrovibacter plantisponsor gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mangrovibacter plantisponsor is strain MSSRF40T (=LMG 24236T =DSM 19579T). © 2010 IUMS.


Mishra S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Chaudhury S.S.,M S Swaminathan Research Foundation | Arivudai Nambi V.,Taramani Institutional Area
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

Koraput is known to be a centre of origin and diversity of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and recently recognized as one of the agro-biodiversity hot spots in India. Tribal and rural farm families in Koraput raise food crops using local seeds and have a repository of traditional seed selection practices. While farmers have valuable traditional knowledge, there is a lack of support mechanisms and relevant training to enhance their skills in the seed selection process. This paper examines the impact of training on the knowledge and skill of farmers' with a specific focus on seed selection practices and its management. The study brings out the significance of capacity building of farm families through Training of Trainers (TOT) programme. The impact of training reveals enhanced knowledge, skill and decision making among farmers with regard to seed selection. Pure and quality seeds helped to improve agricultural productivity and ensured household food security. Purified seeds of landraces cultivated in different land categories fetched 30-50 % higher prices. Designation of such farmers as Primary Trainers provides them recognition and a distinct identity in their community and their services made use by the KKRGC and Village Knowledge Centre (VKC). To make the practice sustainable, there is a need for supportive Government policies to maintain and develop traditional seeds in situ and on farm.


Das A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Kesari V.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Satyanarayana V.M.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area | Rangan L.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Molecular genetic fingerprints of nine Curcuma species from Northeast India were developed using PCR-based markers. The aim involves elucidating there intra- and inter-specific genetic diversity important for utilization, management, and conservation. Twelve random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 19 Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), and four amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers produced 266 polymorphic fragments. ISSR confirmed maximum polymorphism of 98.55% whereas RAPD and AFLP showed 93.22 and 97.27%, respectively. Marker index and polymorphic information content varied in the range of 8.64-48.1, 19.75-48.14, and 25-28 and 0.17-0.48, 0.19-0.48, and 0.25-0.29 for RAPD, ISSR, and AFLP markers, respectively. The average value of number of observed alleles, number of effective alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.93-1.98, 1.37-1.62, 0.23-0.36, and 0.38-0.50, respectively, for three DNA markers used. Dendrograms based on three molecular data using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) was congruent and classified the Curcuma species into two major clusters. Cophenetic correlation coefficient between dendrogram and original similarity matrix were significant for RAPD (r = 0.96), ISSR (r = 0.94), and AFLP (r = 0.97). Clustering was further supported by principle coordinate analysis. High genetic polymorphism documented is significant for conservation and further improvement of Curcuma species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Swaminathan M.S.,Taramani Institutional Area
New Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies. © 2010.


Rani G.M.,Taramani Institutional Area
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2010

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Pachamalai Hills to document Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Management at Pachamalai, rich in both cultural and biodiversity rich area. The tribal women and men of this hill are well known for their knowledge of the medicinal properties of the endemic flora. They have been using specific medicinal plants to cure specific ailments over centuries. The knowledge of the tribal people associated with the treatment of various animal diseases, crop pest management and human cure using medicinal plants is fast disappearing due to urbanization and modernization and tendency to gradual migration to the mainstream. There is an urgent need to study and document the existing knowledge for posterity. This paper presents information on indigenous knowledge associated with the use of plant species to cure animal, human and crop pest and disease management practice followed by Malayali tribals.


George S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Venkataraman G.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, a drought-tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for mining genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Large-scale random EST sequencing from a cDNA library obtained from drought-stressed leaves of 2-month-old P. juliflora plants resulted in identification of three different auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferases. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco of one of these GSTs (PjGSTU1). PjGSTU1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and GST and GPX activities in total protein samples were assayed and compared with controls. The results indicated that PjGSTU1 protein forms a functional homo-dimer in recombinant bacteria with glutathione transferase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities. PjGSTU1 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 15% PEG stress compared with control un-transformed plants. In vivo localization studies for PjGSTU1 using GFP fusion revealed protein localization in chloroplasts of transgenic plants. The peroxidase activity of PjGSTU1 and its localization in the chloroplast indicates a possible role for PjGSTU1 in ROS removal. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Rajalakshmi S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Agricultural productivity is majorly impacted due to various abiotic stresses, particularly salinity and drought. Halophytes serve as an excellent resource for identifying and developing new crop systems, as these grow very luxuriously in very high saline soils. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in such plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. Use of modern tools of 'omics' analyses and small RNA sequencing has helped to gain insights into the complex plant stress responses. Salinity tolerance being a multigenic trait requires a combination of strategies and techniques to successfully develop improved crops varieties. Many transgenic crops are being developed through genetic transformation. Besides marker-assisted breeding/QTL approaches are also being used to improve abiotic stress tolerance. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the utilization of halophytes as a source of genes for genetic improvement in abiotic stress tolerance of crops. © 2012 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.


George S.,Taramani Institutional Area | Parida A.,Taramani Institutional Area
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011

Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, an abiotic stress tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Rab family GTPase from P. juliflora (Pj Rab7) and the ability of this gene to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Northern analysis for Pj Rab7 in P. juliflora leaf tissue revealed up-regulation of this gene under salt stress under the concentrations and time points analyzed. Pj Rab7 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 150 mM NaCl stress compared to control un-transformed plants. Pj Rab7 transgenic plants were found to accumulate more sodium than control plants during salt stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for generation of crop plants tolerant to abiotic stress. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Raju K.,Taramani Institutional Area | Sekar J.,Taramani Institutional Area | Ramalingam P.V.,Taramani Institutional Area
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

A Gram-stain-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated MSSRFH1T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, in Pichavaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of MSSRFH1T, indicated that it clustered in the genus Salinicola and was most closely related to Salinicola peritrichatus JCM18795T (96.7 % similarity). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was <96.5 % with other strains of species of the genus Salinicola. The distinctiveness of strain MSSRFH1T was also shown by low similarities of its rpoD (<87 % similarity) and gyrB (<85 %) gene sequences with those of other members of the genus Salinicola. Strain MSSRFH1T could tolerate NaCl concentrations of up to 30 % (w/v). The main fatty acids of MSSRFH1T included C18: 1ω7c, C16: 0 and C19: 0ω8c. The polar lipids present included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified amino lipid and unidentified phospholipids. Comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated that MSSRFH1T showed a unique DNA profile and its genomic G+C content was 64 mol%. On the basis of the data presented, strain MSSRFH1T represents a novel species of the genus Salinicola, for which the name Salinicola rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MSSRFH1T (=KCTC 32998T=NBRC 110222T). © 2015 IUMS.

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