Aliyu B.,Taraba State University
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014
The world population is expected to grow from 5.7 billion in 1994 to 9.4 billion in 2050. More than half of the world's population (currently 7 billion) will be living in urban areas by the year 2015. This phenomenal increase in the global population and its attendant urbanization exerts extreme pressures on the earth systems through human activities, which now cause significant negative effects on the global cycles and systems. Urban gardening trends and some aspects of urban and peri-urban agriculture have been shown to be sustainable with a yield potential of up to 50 kg of fresh produce per square meter per year. However, the rate by which land is lost to urbanization, erosion, deforestation and desertification, especially in developing countries, calls for sophisticated, diverse and efficient production systems, which produce not only high yields and profit on an environmentally sustainable basis, but also produce foods that are nutritious enough to meet global food security indices. Vegetable cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, cultigroup Sesquipedalis is a vegetable cowpea par excellence, producing long succulent and green edible pods that are up to 0.7 m long, fresh edible pods of up to 4.1 tons per hectare and, above all, matures early, producing edible pods within 34 days of planting. It also performs excellently across varying agro-ecological zones from humid tropics to the dry savannah, making it a potentially global vegetable. The adoption of this vegetable variety in urban gardening (house hold gardens, roof tops, balconies, alley ways, road sides, etc.) and its incorporation as part of the design and planning initiatives for sustainable modern urban cities will guarantee an uninterrupted protein source to urban and other families throughout the year either as fresh immature pods or as dry grains while also maintaining the integrity of the environment. © 2014 WIT Press.
Ardo M.B.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola |
Aliyara Y.H.,Taraba State University
International Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013
A study of economic implications of preventive veterinary services to cattle production system in Yola, Adamawa State was undertaken to determine the level of Preventive Veterinary Medicine (PVM) practiced in the area. Questionnaires and oral interviews were used to obtain data on animal husbandry activities, health status and production indices. Poor farm record keeping was a feature of all farms. There was inadequate supply of information on husbandry, health and production indices. Preventive measures against some diseases like anthrax and shipping fever were not carried out on any of the farms. Husbandry practice was mainly free-range and vaccination coverage was for Contagious Bovine Pleuro-pneumonia and Black quarter. Routine deworming was below expectations as it ranged from 15-25% coverage. Most farmers dewormed only their young stock. © Medwell Journals, 2013.
Pascual-Garrido A.,Gashaka Primate Project |
Pascual-Garrido A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Buba U.,Taraba State University |
Nodza G.,Gashaka Primate Project |
Sommer V.,University College London
Folia Primatologica | Year: 2012
We investigated the acquisition of plant materials from which Nigerian chimpanzees manufacture wooden tools to harvest insects and honey from nests of army ants, honey bees and stingless bees. Slender trunks of juvenile trees and branches are most commonly used, and bendable vines rarely, probably reflecting the need to work with relatively sturdy tools to extract resources. While several tools are sometimes sourced from the same plant, there is also evidence for a depletion effect, as multiple tool sources at the same site are often spaced several metres apart. Identified tool sources belong to 27 species of at least 13 families. Honey-gathering implements are often chewed upon by chimpanzees. Interestingly, twigs of the most commonly used honey-gathering species possess antibacterial propensities and are favoured by Nigerians as chewing sticks. This suggests that extractive tools might possess associated medicinal or stimulatory properties. We do not know if chimpanzees actively select specific plant parts or species as we cannot compare observed with expected frequencies. Nevertheless, about three quarters of tools are picked from plants more than 6 m away from the extraction site, potentially indicating some degree of forward planning. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pascual-Garrido A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Pascual-Garrido A.,University of Oxford |
Umaru B.,Gashaka Primate Project |
Umaru B.,Taraba State University |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013
Some chimpanzee populations prey upon army ants, usually with stick tools. However, how their prey's subterranean nesting and nomadic lifestyle influence the apes' harvesting success is still poorly understood. This is particularly true for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) at Gashaka/Nigeria, which consume army ants (Dorylus rubellus) with much higher frequency than at other sites. We assessed various harvesting and search options theoretically available to the apes. For this, we reconstructed annual consumption patterns from feces and compared the physical characteristics of exploited ant nests with those that were not targeted. Repeated exploitation of a discovered nest is viable only in the short term, as disturbed colonies soon moved to a new site. Moreover, monitoring previously occupied nest cavities is uneconomical, as ants hardly ever re-used them. Thus, the apes have to detect new nests regularly, although colony density is relatively low (1 colony/1.3ha). Surprisingly, visual search cues seem to be of limited importance because the probability of a nest being exploited was independent of its conspicuousness (presence of excavated soil piles, concealing leaf-litter or vegetation). However, chimpanzees preferentially targeted nests in forests or at the base of food trees, that is, where the apes spend relatively more time and/or where ant colony density is highest. Taken together, our findings suggest that, instead of employing a search strategy based on visual cues or spatial memory, chimpanzee predation on army ants contains a considerable opportunistic element. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Amuta E.U.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture |
Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection and the risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to process urine specimens and to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 55.0% (165/300) was recorded out of the 300 urine samples examined. Prevalence of infection varied between 36.0%-64.0% with a significant difference (χ2= 11.59, P=0.041) between the different communities visited. Males were more infected (60.6%, 103/170) than females (47.7%, 62/130) with a significant difference (χ2= 4.95, P=0.026). The age-related prevalence showed higher prevalence (70.5%, 36/52) in the 11-15 year old children than that in the 1-5 year old ones (44.9%, 53/118). A significant difference was observed in the prevalence between the age groups (χ2=10.56, P=0.014). The prevalence of light intensity of infection (1-49 eggs/10 mL of urine) (86.6%) was significantly higher than that of heavy intensity of infection (≥50 eggs/10 mL of urine) (13.3%) in the area (t=16.48, P=0.000). Water contact activities of the children revealed that children that were involved in irrigation and those that went swimming in water bodies were observed to be at higher risk of becoming infected with urinary schistosomiasis in the area with odd ratios (risk factors) of 2.756 (1.334-5.693) and 2.366 (1.131-4.948) respectively at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: The study revealed the hyperendemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in the pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area. It is therefore recommended that praziquantel should be administered to children in the area and systematic epidemiological studies should be undertaken in the whole Local Government Area and the State at large to discover new foci of infection. © 2014 Hainan Medical College.
Amuta E.U.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture |
Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University |
Diya A.W.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012
Objective: Malarial infection among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending Federal Medical Centre Makurdi, Benue State was investigated between April and August 2008. Methods: A total of 1080 HIV patients were examined (800 on ART and 280 not on ART considered as control). Questionnaire was administered to each participant to collect socio-demographic data. The Cytoflow and Leishman's staining techniques were used to count CD4+ and conduct parasitological examination respectively. Results: Of the 800 HIV/AIDS patients on ART examined for malaria parasites, 20.5% (164/800) were found positive for malaria infection, while those not on ART had an infection rate of 63.9% (179/280). There was no statistically significant difference of malarial infection between patients not on ART and those on ART (χ2= 14.05, p= 0.0805). The age group 9-15 years recorded the highest infection rate with 55.6% (5/9), while the lowest infection, 15.8% (41/260) was observed in the 30-36 years age group. Malarial infection was higher in patients with CD4+count less than 1073/μL. Females showed higher infection rate (12.6%) than males (7.9%) but with no statistically significant difference (χ2=1.95, P=0.85). Conclusions: It was observed that ART boosts immunity of HIV/AIDS patients against malarial infection, which indirectly is a possible implication for malaria control. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.
Amuta E.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture |
Houmsou R.,Taraba State University |
Wama E.,Taraba State University |
Ameh M.,Benue State University
Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2014
This study assessed the level of malarial infection in relation to some epidemiological factors, gravidity and pregnancy period of antenatal clinic attendees of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. We also assessed malarial infection in placental blood in relation to gravidity of pregnant women at delivery in the maternity clinic of the same hospital. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. A questionnaire was administered to each pregnant woman at the antenatal clinic to collect data on educational level, occupation, gravidity, pregnancy period, malaria preventive measures and malaria symptoms. Of the 163 pregnant women examined at the antenatal clinic, 68.3% (111/163) were infected with malaria. Pregnant women that are illiterates (x2 =15.44, P=0.100) and those that are farmers (x2 =9.20, P=0.270) had the highest infection rate with no significant difference respectively. Malarial infection was significantly higher in the multigravidae, 57.6% (34/59) (x2 =5.16, P=0.007) and non-significant in the pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy, 60.9% (53/89) (x2 =4.45, P=0.108). Placental malaria was significantly higher in the primigravidae among pregnant women at delivery (x2 =9.33, P=0.000). A significant difference (x2 =33.52, P=0.000) was observed between pregnant women that did not use any malaria preventive methods, 91.2% (31/34) and those that used single, 64.3% (65/101) and combined, 46.4% (13/28) methods of prevention. Malaria remains highly prevalent among antenatal clinics attendees in Makurdi, Nigeria. Combined method of prevention (insecticides treated nets and insecticide spray) yielded good results and its use is advocated in preventing malaria among the pregnant women. © E. Amuta et al.,2014.
Nzeda Tagowa W.,Taraba State University |
Nformi Buba U.,Taraba State University
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2012
The Gashaka Gumti National Park (GGNP) is located along the central part of the North-Eastern border of Nigeria and Cameroon in Taraba and Adamawa states. The Park is the largest and most diverse enclaves in Nigeria and is an endowed home of extensive biodiversity, natural and socio-cultural potentials. Its expanse has the capacity to accommodate local and international tourism. The Gashaka Primate Project (GPP), being funded by the North of England Geological Society, London, through the Chester Zoo 2000, has, since 2000, undertaken a series of biodiversity activities in support of the Nigerian Biodiversity programme, to enhance sustainable rural tourism development of the area. This study, therefore, reviews the activities of GPP as an example of the emergent strategies for sustainable rural tourism development in Nigeria. The study equally analyses the various activities undertaken in the project which, among others, include biodiversity research and documentation, ecosystem conservation, human-wild life conflicts, capacity building and environmental protection and preservation. These activities are essential prerequisites for sustainable rural tourism development. The paper further examines the major impact of the project, challenges and constraints as well advances new conservation strategies for enhancing sustainable rural tourism development of the GGNP. The paper makes some recommendations which surround the necessity for further collaboration of a broad range of the society to push forward the new strategies. This requires holistic approach to tourism development which will continue to impact on biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development of the local communities in and around the Park. © 2012 WIT Press.
Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University |
Kela S.L.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University |
Suleiman M.M.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: To assess if microhaematuria and proteinuria as measured by reagent strips could estimate intensity of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) infection in endemic areas and evaluate their screening performance among children in Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 1 124 urine samples were collected, screened for microhaematuria and proteinuria using reagent strips (Combi 9) and results were compared to filtration technique, the gold standard method. Results: A significant correlation was observed between microhaematuria (rho= 0.66, P<0.01), proteinuria (rho = 0.71, P<0.01) and intensity of S. haematobium eggs. Proteinuria had sensitivity of 95.7% and specificity of 67.2%, while microhaematuria had sensitivity of 64.8% and specificity of 89.6%. The proportion of false positive diagnoses was higher in proteinuria (19.2%) than microhaematuria (6.0%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that use of urine reagent strips could potentially estimate intensity of S. haematobium infection and their performance to screen urinary schistosomiasis agreed with previous observations. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.
PubMed | Roehampton University and Taraba State University
Type: | Journal: General and comparative endocrinology | Year: 2015
In order to maintain regulatory processes, animals are expected to be adapted to the range of environmental stressors usually encountered in their environmental niche. The available capacity of their stress responses is termed their reactive scope, which is utilised to a greater or lesser extent to deal with different stressors. Typically, non-invasive hormone assessment is used to measure the physiological stress responses of wild animals, but, for methodological reasons, such measurements are not directly comparable across studies, limiting interpretation. To overcome this constraint, we propose a new measure of the relative strength of stress responses, demonstrated reactive scope, and illustrate its use in a study of ecological correlates (climate, food availability) of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels in two forest-living troops of baboons. Results suggest the wild-feeding troop experiences both thermoregulatory and nutritional stress, while the crop-raiding troop experiences only thermoregulatory stress. This difference, together with the crop-raiding troops lower overall physiological stress levels and lower demonstrated fGC reactive scope, may reflect nutritional stress-buffering in this troop. The relatively high demonstrated fGC reactive scope levels of both troops compared with other baboons and primate species, may reflect their extreme habitat, on the edge of the geographic range for baboons. Demonstrated reactive scope provides a means of gauging the relative strengths of stress responses of individuals, populations, or species under different conditions, enhancing the interpretive capacity of non-invasive studies of stress hormone levels in wild populations, e.g. in terms of animals adaptive flexibility, the magnitude of their response to anthropogenic change, or the severity of impact of environmental conditions.