Pascual-Garrido A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Buba U.,Taraba State University |
Sommer V.,University College London
Folia Primatologica | Year: 2012
We investigated the acquisition of plant materials from which Nigerian chimpanzees manufacture wooden tools to harvest insects and honey from nests of army ants, honey bees and stingless bees. Slender trunks of juvenile trees and branches are most commonly used, and bendable vines rarely, probably reflecting the need to work with relatively sturdy tools to extract resources. While several tools are sometimes sourced from the same plant, there is also evidence for a depletion effect, as multiple tool sources at the same site are often spaced several metres apart. Identified tool sources belong to 27 species of at least 13 families. Honey-gathering implements are often chewed upon by chimpanzees. Interestingly, twigs of the most commonly used honey-gathering species possess antibacterial propensities and are favoured by Nigerians as chewing sticks. This suggests that extractive tools might possess associated medicinal or stimulatory properties. We do not know if chimpanzees actively select specific plant parts or species as we cannot compare observed with expected frequencies. Nevertheless, about three quarters of tools are picked from plants more than 6 m away from the extraction site, potentially indicating some degree of forward planning. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Amuta E.U.,Makurdi University Of Agriculture |
Houmsou R.S.,Taraba State University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection and the risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to process urine specimens and to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 55.0% (165/300) was recorded out of the 300 urine samples examined. Prevalence of infection varied between 36.0%-64.0% with a significant difference (χ2= 11.59, P=0.041) between the different communities visited. Males were more infected (60.6%, 103/170) than females (47.7%, 62/130) with a significant difference (χ2= 4.95, P=0.026). The age-related prevalence showed higher prevalence (70.5%, 36/52) in the 11-15 year old children than that in the 1-5 year old ones (44.9%, 53/118). A significant difference was observed in the prevalence between the age groups (χ2=10.56, P=0.014). The prevalence of light intensity of infection (1-49 eggs/10 mL of urine) (86.6%) was significantly higher than that of heavy intensity of infection (≥50 eggs/10 mL of urine) (13.3%) in the area (t=16.48, P=0.000). Water contact activities of the children revealed that children that were involved in irrigation and those that went swimming in water bodies were observed to be at higher risk of becoming infected with urinary schistosomiasis in the area with odd ratios (risk factors) of 2.756 (1.334-5.693) and 2.366 (1.131-4.948) respectively at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: The study revealed the hyperendemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in the pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area. It is therefore recommended that praziquantel should be administered to children in the area and systematic epidemiological studies should be undertaken in the whole Local Government Area and the State at large to discover new foci of infection. © 2014 Hainan Medical College.
Ardo M.B.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola |
Aliyara Y.H.,Taraba State University
International Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013
A study of economic implications of preventive veterinary services to cattle production system in Yola, Adamawa State was undertaken to determine the level of Preventive Veterinary Medicine (PVM) practiced in the area. Questionnaires and oral interviews were used to obtain data on animal husbandry activities, health status and production indices. Poor farm record keeping was a feature of all farms. There was inadequate supply of information on husbandry, health and production indices. Preventive measures against some diseases like anthrax and shipping fever were not carried out on any of the farms. Husbandry practice was mainly free-range and vaccination coverage was for Contagious Bovine Pleuro-pneumonia and Black quarter. Routine deworming was below expectations as it ranged from 15-25% coverage. Most farmers dewormed only their young stock. © Medwell Journals, 2013.
Kanu M.O.,Taraba State University |
Meludu O.C.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola |
Oniku S.A.,Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Geofisica Internacional | Year: 2014
An investigation of the effect of some human activities on the magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility was conducted on top soil samples from, a commercial area, a motor park and a school environment in Jalingo, Taraba State, N-E Nigeria. The purpose was to assess the variation of magnetic susceptibility with different land use, detect pollution hotspots using magnetic proxy parameters and evaluate the contribution of superparamagnetic (SP) grain size contribution to the magnetic susceptibility from calculation of the frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (MS). The results of the mass specific low frequency magnetic susceptibility measurements showed significant enhancement with values ranging from 67.8 - 495.3 x 10-8 m3kg-1 with a mean value of 191.61 x 10-8 m3kg-1 for the Jalingo College of Education (JCOE) data; 520.1 - 1612.8 x 10-8 m3kg-1 with a mean value of 901.34 x 10-8 m3kg-1 for the Jalingo main Market (JMM) and 188.5-1203.6 x 10-8m3kg-1 with an average value of 574 92 x 10-6 m3kg-1 for the Jalingo Motor Park (JMP). The significant magnetic enhancement indicates high concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in the soil and hence increased pollution. The magnetic susceptibility of the different land use studied decreased in the order commercial area (market) > motor park > school premises. The results of the percentage frequency dependence susceptibility showed that most of the samples had a mixture of SP and coarse multi domain grains or SP grains < 0.05μm. The value of χfd% range from 2.68 to 13.80% with an average value of 8.67% in the JCOE samples, 0.49 to 10.04% with an a-verage of 5.05% in the JMM samples and 0.56 to 13.04% with an average value of 5.86% in the JMP samples. © 2014, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. All rights reserved.
Pascual-Garrido A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Pascual-Garrido A.,University of Oxford |
Umaru B.,Gashaka Primate Project |
Umaru B.,Taraba State University |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013
Some chimpanzee populations prey upon army ants, usually with stick tools. However, how their prey's subterranean nesting and nomadic lifestyle influence the apes' harvesting success is still poorly understood. This is particularly true for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) at Gashaka/Nigeria, which consume army ants (Dorylus rubellus) with much higher frequency than at other sites. We assessed various harvesting and search options theoretically available to the apes. For this, we reconstructed annual consumption patterns from feces and compared the physical characteristics of exploited ant nests with those that were not targeted. Repeated exploitation of a discovered nest is viable only in the short term, as disturbed colonies soon moved to a new site. Moreover, monitoring previously occupied nest cavities is uneconomical, as ants hardly ever re-used them. Thus, the apes have to detect new nests regularly, although colony density is relatively low (1 colony/1.3ha). Surprisingly, visual search cues seem to be of limited importance because the probability of a nest being exploited was independent of its conspicuousness (presence of excavated soil piles, concealing leaf-litter or vegetation). However, chimpanzees preferentially targeted nests in forests or at the base of food trees, that is, where the apes spend relatively more time and/or where ant colony density is highest. Taken together, our findings suggest that, instead of employing a search strategy based on visual cues or spatial memory, chimpanzee predation on army ants contains a considerable opportunistic element. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.