Moro M.,University of Stirling |
Fischer A.,University of Warsaw |
Czajkowski M.,University of Warsaw |
Brennan D.,University of Stirling |
And 2 more authors.
Bushmeat hunting is perceived as a serious threat to the conservation status of many species in Africa. We use a novel livelihood choice experiment method to investigate the role of illegal hunting within livelihood strategies in the western Serengeti, and to identify potential trade-offs between illegal hunting and other income sources. We find that increasing access to microcredit, higher wages, increases in number of cows, weeks hunting and increased access to market all contribute to well-being. We are able to quantify the trade-offs between weeks spent illegal hunting and increases in cattle, wage income, access to markets, and access to microcredit. However, important differences emerge in response to these variables between different wealth groups which shape how we should design conservation and development interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source
Packer C.,University of Minnesota |
Brink H.,University of Kent |
Kissui B.M.,African Wildlife Foundation |
Maliti H.,Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km2 of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km2 of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km2. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2007.2.1.4.3. | Award Amount: 3.84M | Year: 2008
Biodiversity conservation increasingly takes place outside protected areas in multiple-use landscapes. Success in achieving biodiversity objectives is closely linked to the extent to which conservation can be integrated with the cultural, social and economic objectives and aspirations of people. Beliefs, perceptions, attitudes and preferences about biodiversity are central to the decisions made by individuals and groups about natural resource management. In this project we will use hunting as a lens through which to examine the wider issue of how people interact with biodiversity. Hunting provides a valuable case study in the use of biodiversity because it involves tens of millions of people globally, it is conducted across a wide range of land tenure and use systems, and it is an important source of revenue and protein, particularly in developing countries. Hunting is embedded in social structures and cultural patterns and has a key role in conflicts over natural resource management around the world. Our multidisciplinary team will assess the social, cultural, economic and ecological functions and impacts of hunting across a range of contexts in Europe and Africa. Our study systems fall across economic gradients from the richest to the poorest countries and encompass environments from the Arctic to the Equator. We seek to understand what influences attitudes to hunting, how these attitudes influence and determine individual and societal behaviour in relation to hunting, and finally, how hunting behaviour influences biodiversity. Consequently, we will integrate social, economic and ecological scientific disciplines and engage with a diverse selection of stakeholders to develop novel approaches to the mitigation of natural resource conflicts involving hunting. Finally, our results will be interpreted in respect to current and future EU policy on hunting and biodiversity conservation and contribute to the global debate about the sustainable use of biodiversity.
Hatton I.A.,McGill University |
McCann K.S.,University of Guelph |
Fryxell J.M.,University of Guelph |
Davies T.J.,McGill University |
And 4 more authors.
Ecosystems exhibit surprising regularities in structure and function across terrestrial and aquatic biomes worldwide.We assembled a global data set for 2260 communities of large mammals, invertebrates, plants, and plankton.We find that predator and prey biomass follow a general scaling law with exponents consistently near. This pervasive pattern implies that the structure of the biomass pyramid becomes increasingly bottom-heavy at higher biomass. Similar exponents are obtained for community production-biomass relations, suggesting conserved links between ecosystem structure and function. These exponents are similar to many body mass allometries, and yet ecosystem scaling emerges independently from individual-level scaling, which is not fully understood. These patterns suggest a greater degree of ecosystem-level organization than previously recognized and a more predictive approach to ecological theory. Source
Mwita M.,Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
e-Review of Tourism Research
The study assessed opportunities and challenges in the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by tour operators in Tanzania. Focused group discussions, key informant interview both (guided by checklists), and questionnaires (open and closed ended) were used for data collection. The results indicate that through the use of ICT the entire tourism industry structure is changing because the Internet and ICT support functional activities, such as: marketing, data collection, planning, sales, operations, human resource management, customer care and purchasing. However, the current status of ICT usage in tourism is still minimal especially in terms of marketing and operation. Source