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PubMed | The Pirbright Institute, Foot and Mouth Disease Laboratory, OptiGene Ltd, Enigma Diagnostics Ltd and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2015

Accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. However, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. These concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect cases of FMD. In this context, FMD virus (FMDV)-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, compatible with simple sample preparation methods and insitu visualization, have been developed which share equivalent analytical sensitivity with laboratory-based rRT-PCR. However, the lack of robust ready-to-use kits that utilize stabilized reagents limits the deployment of these tests into field settings. To address this gap, this study describes the performance of lyophilized rRT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays to detect FMDV. Both of these assays are compatible with the use of fluorescence to monitor amplification in real-time, and for the RT-LAMP assays end point detection could also be achieved using molecular lateral flow devices. Lyophilization of reagents did not adversely affect the performance of the assays. Importantly, when these assays were deployed into challenging laboratory and field settings within East Africa they proved to be reliable in their ability to detect FMDV in a range of clinical samples from acutely infected as well as convalescent cattle. These data support the use of highly sensitive molecular assays into field settings for simple and rapid detection of FMDV.


Mbyuzi A.O.,Veterinary Investigation Center | Komba E.V.G.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Cordery-Cotter R.,University of Wyoming | Magwisha H.B.,Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in the southern part of Tanzania with the aim of evaluating the concerns and attitudes of traditional small holder small ruminant keepers in reference to Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) during the period of January 2013. The study involved 141 goat keepers and four randomly selected wards from a total of 30 in Tandahimba district of Mtwara region. The results show that 91% of the respondents indicated animal diseases as the major constraint, with others reporting inadequacy of feed resources (3.30%), conflicts between crop producers and animal keepers (2.50%), poor veterinary and extension services (1.70%), water scarcity (0.80%) and thefts(0.80%) as limiting factors. Seventy three percent of livestock keepers who indicated diseases to be the major constraint identified PPR and CCPP as the most important health constraints. Other diseases of importance were helminthosis (14.0%), foot rot (8.00%) and orf (5.0%). Most livestock keepers (62.0%) indicated nasal discharge, dyspnoea, rough hair coat and coughing as the major features of PPR and CCPP. CCPP and PPR were reported to occur mainly (p=0.00) during the rainy than the dry season and were associated with morbidities ranging from 84.1% to 100% and mortalities varying from 64.0% to 81.0% in goats. In sheep, the morbidities ranged from 58.0% to 81.4%, while mortality range was 58.1%-74.0%.The morbidities and mortalities in goats were significantly higher (p=0.013) than those in sheep. The results thus indicate that smallholder small ruminant farmers in the emerging animal keeping area in the southern part of Tanzania consider PPR and CCPP as their major limiting factors which require immediate redress in terms of improved surveillance and control measures. © 2015, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Australian National University, University of Witwatersrand, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock and University of Sydney
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in public health | Year: 2016

The project Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced.


PubMed | Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Sokoine University of Agriculture, The Pirbright Institute and Technical University of Denmark
Type: | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2016

Rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). While pan-specific molecular tests for FMD virus (FMDV) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and FMD-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection ELISAs or nucleotide sequencing approaches. This report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) tailored to detect FMDV lineages currently circulating in East Africa. These assays target sequences within the VP1-coding region that share high intra-lineage identity, but do not cross-react with FMD viruses from other serotypes that circulate in the region. These serotype-specific assays operate with the same thermal profile as the pan-diagnostic tests making it possible to run them in parallel to produce C


Chengula A.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kasanga C.J.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mdegela R.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Sallu R.,Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency | Yongolo M.,Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease affecting domestic animals and humans caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). The virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to detect the presence of antibodies to RVFV as well as the virus in the serum samples that were collected from livestock during the 2006/2007 RVF outbreaks in different locations in Tanzania. Analysis of selected samples was done using a RVF-specific inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genomic viral RNA was extracted directly from serum samples using a QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN), and a one-step RT-PCR protocol was used to amplify the S segment of RVFV. Positive results were obtained in 39.5 % (n = 200) samples using the RVF I-ELISA, and 17.6 % (n = 108) of samples were positive by RT-PCR. I-ELISA detected 41 (38.7 %), 32 (39.0 %), and 6 (50.0 %) positive results in cattle, goats, and sheep sera, respectively, whereas the RT-PCR detected 11 (0.2 %), 7 (0.2 %), and 1 (0.1 %) positive results in cattle, goats, and sheep sera, respectively. These findings have demonstrated the presence of RVFV in Tanzania during the 2006/2007 RVF outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to detect RVFV in serum samples from domestic animals in Tanzania using PCR technique. Therefore, a detailed molecular study to characterize the virus from different geographical locations in order to establish the profile of strains circulating in the country and develop more effective and efficient control strategies should be done. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bura Q.T.,Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency | Magwisha H.B.,Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency | Mdegela R.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

A cross sectional study was carried out to establish the seroprevalence and risk factors for Salmonella gallinarum infection in smallholder layers flocks in Mwanza City, Tanzania from December 2013 to January 2014. A total of 315 layers from 63 flocks were randomly selected for collection of blood samples. A questionnaire survey and direct flock observation to determine risk factors were made in 63 sample flocks. Whole Blood Agglutination (WBA) and Tube Agglutination (TA) tests were carried out to establish the individual layers and flock-level seroprevalence of S. gallinarum.The individual layers (n=315) seroprevalence established using WBA and TA tests were 28% and 15% respectively and flock-level (n=63) seroprevalence were 62% (95% C.I = 50-73) and 51% (95% C.I = 39-63), respectively. Several variables were investigated in this survey in relation to sero-status of S. gallinarum infection. A logistic regression analysis indicated that, two variables were significantly associated with sero-status: presence of other birds (OR = 11.1; 95% CI = 2.7-45.3) and presence of multiple flocks of layers (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 2.0-30.8). In conclusion, this study demonstrated relatively high birds exposure to S. gallinarum and responsible risk factors in smallholder layers flocks. The improvement of good management practices such as avoiding other birds and multiple flocks and biosecurity measures such as disinfection of equipment should be put in place to alleviate the risk of S. gallinarum infection. © 2014, Livestock Research for Rural Development. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research | Year: 2014

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves) have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of this research study was to determine FMDV infection status among buffalo and cattle herds in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas. The sampled areas included Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha national parks, where a total of 330 buffalo and bovine sera samples were collected. Laboratory analysis of the samples was done through the NSP ELISA technique using the PrioCHECK FMDV NS Kit for detection of antibodies directed against 3ABC non-structural proteins and confirming natural infections. Results showed that 76.3% of tested sera samples were positive for FMDV. However, serotyping of NSP ELISA seroreactors with LPBE is yet to be done. This information is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective FMD control strategies.

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