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Nziku Z.C.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Eik L.O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Steine T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Adnoy T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

This paper discusses selection in a dairy goat population for improved performance by conceptualizing it for a population in Tanzania. Seven strategies (5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100 test bucks) were simulated. A progeny test based selection breeding program fitting Mgeta (Morogoro, Tanzania) situation was optimized. The selection intensity, accuracy of prediction, and genetic gain of milk yield (kg) per day at heritability 0.1 and 0.2 are discussed. Use of natural mating for 1000 goats, in cooperating villages, were assumed. Three elite bucks were selected for breeding with 12% of the best females. Outlines of essential elements for a local sustainable dairy goat breeding program in Tanzania are included with a schematic figure showing selection steps for dairy goat breeding scheme fitting in Mgeta area. This study found that selection intensity gained when testing many bucks is more important for daily milk yield (DMY) (kg) genetic gain than the extra accuracy gained when testing fewer bucks. Mgeta has a mountainous terrain, small herd sizes per farmer and long distance from one cooperating village to another. Testing 30 bucks is practical for Mgeta. That gives relatively high (42% or 53%) accuracy of selection and genetic gain (2% or 2.6% for 0.1 or 0.2 heritability). The current results of estimated genetic gain are close to reported findings under other environments. Based on dairy goats of Norwegian breed in Tanzania, milked once daily, if 210 days of milking and an average of 1 litre milk yield is considered, the possible genetic gain per year in this program is equivalent to an increase of 4.2kg for 0.1 heritability and 5.5kg of milk per doe for 0.2 heritability of the trait. Such an increase in amount of milk due to a breeding program under the considered environment is promising. Collaborative efforts from farmers to consumers along the dairy goat market chain remain important elements to realize a sustainable high gain. The proposed breeding program may not be perfect in future because of practical options and accessibility to new knowledge. Thus, it becomes indispensable to revise breeding programs. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Wassena F.J.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | Mangesho W.E.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI | Chawala A.,TALIRI | Laswai G.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The study was conducted in 4 villages of Kilosa and Mvomero districts in Morogoro Region and 4 villages of Handeni and Lushoto districts in Tanga Region. The aim was to compare differences in cattle milk produced and milk producer prices based on location and seasons in the two regions. The study applied the Feed Assessment Tool (FEAST) for gathering data through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Data on rainfall pattern throughout the year, milk produced per household per day, and milk prices received in Tanzanian Shilling (TSh) per litre were gathered. The daily amount of milk produced per household was greater (p ≤ 0.05) in Handeni (SE 2.33) and Kilosa (SE 2.12) districts than for Mvomero (SE 3.09) and Lushoto (SE 2.24) districts, with an overall production of 23.8-28.7 litres/household. There were also differences (p ≤ 0.05) in milk producer prices, in Mvomero (SD 147.95), Lushoto (SD 62.26), Kilosa (SD 116.12) and Handeni (SD 123.40) with an overall range from 200-1000 TSh/litre of milk. Seasonality of rainfall had effects on both milk produced and milk prices. On the other hand, local feeding systems influenced milk produced per household, while marketing channels affected milk prices. More research on the use of innovation approaches to address issues of prices and seasonal milk supply, as well as training and use of improved forage technology were possible options recommended to achieve a year-round similar level of milk production. © 2015, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Braae U.C.,Copenhagen University | Kabululu M.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI | Kabululu M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Normark M.E.,Copenhagen University | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lipendele C.P.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Lekule F.P.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Ngowi H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2–3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P < 0.05) liveweight gains (136 g/day) compared to pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26 %, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52 %. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Mahonge C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mwilawa A.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI | Ngendello M.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI | Mtambuki A.,Tanzania Livestock Research Institute TALIRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

Pastoralists in Longido district experience effects of climate change and variability, which compromise their livelihoods. We reviewed the existing policies for issues aimed at enhancing pastoralists’ resilience and compared these with the field reality. The study was governed by policy analysis and governance approaches.The results indicated 1) the theoretical existence of pastoralists’ relevant issues in various national policies but the issues were generally not practically realized, 2) the lack of operational policies, that is, non-customization of high level policies to the realities of the field. Coping strategies undertaken by pastoralists included long distance travel searching favorable environments where pasture and water resources could be accessed especially during critical dry seasons. We recommend that there is a need for concerted efforts to ensure that policy issues for enhancing pastoralists’ resilience are put into practice. © 2014, Fundacion CIPAV. All right reserved.

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