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Petro R.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Madoffe S.S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

The status of Pine Woolly Aphid (Pineus boerneri) was studied at Sao-Hill forest plantation, Southern Highlands of Tanzania. The major objectives of the study were to determine distribution and abundance of Pine Woolly Aphid (PWA) affecting main plantation species (Pinus patula and P. elliottii) and to assess intensity of damage between different age classes. Other objectives were to determine the parts of the tree crown mostly damaged and the extent of damage and to find out relationship between aphid abundance and damage. The main findings of the study were; the population densities of adult PWA did not differ significantly (p>0.05) for both P. patula and P. elliottii among the three blocks (Divisions) studied. However, Division one was more affected by aphids than other Divisions with the mean total adult population number of 17.4, 16.5 and 13.6 for P. patula and 6.7, 6.3 and 6.1 for P. elliottii for Divisions I, II and III, respectively. The mean total adult aphid population was found to be 10.1, 20.2 and 17.3 for P. patula for young, middle and old age classes respectively. In P. elliottii stands where only old class was observed, the mean total adult aphid was 19.1. Similarly, this age class was more affected than P. patula. On the other hand, the middle part of the tree crown was more damaged than other crown parts. There was a strong relationship between aphid abundance and damage between Divisions and age classes with coefficient of determination (R2) of 99.7 and 99.9%, respectively. The overall low intensity of aphid population recorded was probably due to the effect caused by predators like Tetraphleps raoi and some native natural enemies. Silvicutural operations, regular insect survey and monitoring programmes should be intensified in order to reduce the intensity of attack and spread of the pest. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Kindo A.I.,Tanzania Forest Services | Edward E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mndolwa M.A.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Chamshama S.A.O.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Southern Forests | Year: 2014

A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four replications. The results showed significant differences (P < 0.0001) in all parameters. Casuarina equisetifolia from Montazah National Park, Egypt, had the lowest untransformed survival (48.8%), whereas C. equisetifolia from Wagait Tower (North Timor), Indonesia, had the highest survival (87.5%). Casuarina equisetifolia from Montazah National Park, Egypt, had the lowest mean diameter (8.6 cm) while the C. junghuhniana provenance from Timor, Indonesia (seedlot no. 19489) had the highest diameter (14.8 cm). Casuarina equisetifolia from Montazah National Park, Egypt, had the lowest mean height (16.2 m), volume (22.1 m3 ha-1) and biomass production (23.5 t ha-1), whereas C. equisetifolia from Hadsamira Songkhla, Thailand, had the highest mean height (24.3 m), volume (66.4 m3 ha-1) and biomass production (72.9 t ha-1). In terms of wood basic density, the C. junghuhniana provenance from Timor, Indonesia (seedlot no. 19489) had the lowest (617 kg m-3), whereas C. equisetifolia from Wagait Tower (North Timor), Indonesia, had the highest (731 kg m-3). Ordinal ranking for the best-performing species/provenances revealed that the best two provenances were C. equisetifolia from Hadsamira Sonkhla, Thailand, and C. junghuhniana from Timor, Indonesia (seedlot no. 19491). The two poorest-performing provenances were C. equisetifolia from Montazah National Park, Egypt, and C. equisetifolia from Cotonou, Benin. The outstanding species/provenances are recommended for pilot planting at Kibaha and similar sites. © 2014 Copyright © NISC (Pty) Ltd.


Balama C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Balama C.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Augustino S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Eriksen S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Makonda F.B.S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Climate and Development | Year: 2016

Climate change is among the key challenges that may influence livelihoods of people in Tanzania. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are among the forest products that serve as livelihood resources in the face of climate stresses. However, little is known on the extent to which NTFPs enhance the adaptive capacity of households adjacent to forests in the context of climate stresses. Based on fieldwork in Kilombero District, we investigated how households adjacent to forests use NTFPs as different forms of capital asset to support adaptation strategies for livelihood outcomes. Data were collected using socio-economic appraisal. Three NTFPs out of twelve – firewood, medicinal plants and thatch grasses – were identified as priorities because of their immediate importance for supporting households. Priority NTFPs contributed to human, financial and physical capital assets. They also contributed about 3% of the total household annual income. Income and expenditure of priority NTFPs was significantly influenced (p < .05) by age of respondent, household size, distance to resources, change in management regimes of forest and wooded grassland and household income. The households indicated they would use priority NTFPs to improve livelihoods outcomes. Findings in this study can inform policy and support decision makers to establish mechanisms in conservation rules and regulations to enable forest adjacent households to access the NTFPs. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Kindo A.,Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism | Mndolwa M.A.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Edward E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Chamshama S.A.O.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Southern Forests | Year: 2010

This study to compare performance of three Australian-Papua New Guinean Acacia species/provenances (A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa) and A. julifera was conducted at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. Species/provenances were evaluated for survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with three replications of 22 treatments (species/provenances). Data for survival, diameter at breast height and height was collected at ages 2 and 4 years from the nine inner-plot trees. Six defect-free trees from each treatment were selected at random for volume, wood basic density and biomass measurements. Results showed significant differences in survival, height and diameter growth among species/provenances at all assessment occasions. Average untransformed survival at 4 years ranged from 16.0% to 93.3%. Acacia crassicarpa from Bensbach, Papua New Guinea (PNG), had the largest diameter (13.9 cm) and A. crassicarpa from Bimadebum, PNG, had the largest height (12.6 m). Volume production and wood biomass differed significantly (p < 0.001) among species/provenances. Acacia crassicarpa from Bensbach, PNG, had the highest volume (58.7 m 3 ha -1) and wood biomass (53.4 t ha -1) while A. mangium from Kongowe, Tanzania, had the lowest height (4.6 m), volume (1.92 m 3 ha -1) and wood biomass (2.7 t ha -1). Acacia mangium from Claudie River, Queensland, had the highest basic density (610.6 kg m -3) while the accession from Bituri, PNG, had the lowest (375.2 kg m -3). Ordinal ranking indicated that the three best-performing Australian-PNG Acacia species/ provenances were A. crassicarpa from Bimadebum, PNG; A. crassicarpa from Bensbach, PNG; and A. auriculiformis from south of Coen, Cape York. The three poorest species/provenances were A. mangium from Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania; A. julifera subsp. julifera from Ipswich, Queensland; and A. mangium from Balimo, PNG. The best-performing species/ provenances are recommended for planting in Kongowe and other areas with similar ecological conditions. © NISC (Pty) Ltd.


Petro R.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Madoffe S.S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Iddi S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Journal of Sustainable Forestry | Year: 2014

This study explores infestation density of Leptocybe invasa on five commercially grown Eucalyptus species in Coastal, Plateaux, and Southern Highlands agroecological zones of Tanzania. Infestation density between agroecological zones, Eucalyptus species, age classes and tree crown parts, relationship between stand altitudes and the magnitude of infestation, damage index, species age, and abundance of L. invasa on different Eucalyptus species were examined. There were significant differences in infestation between zones and Eucalyptus species. Eucalyptus tereticornis was more affected, followed by E. camaldulensis, and E. saligna was the least while E. grandis and E. citriodora were not affected. No significant differences in damage between different crown parts were observed. Trees with age of 1-3 yr were damaged more than those of age 4-6 yr. Pest infestation increased with an increase of L. invasa abundance but decreased with an increase of altitudes. Control efforts needs to focus on controlling the spread of the pest, using silvicultural methods and planting resistant Eucalyptus species. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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