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Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Kimanya M.E.,Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority | Kimanya M.E.,Ghent University | De Meulenaer B.,Ghent University | Roberfroid D.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Infants consuming maize-based foods are at a high risk of exposure to fumonisins. This study explored the association between exposure of fumonisins from maize and growth retardation among infants in Tanzania. Mothers of 215 infants consented for their children to participate in this study. We estimated maize intake for each child by twice conducting a 24 h dietary recall and fumonisins level in the maize, using HPLC. Fumonisins exposure for each child was estimated by combining his/her maize intake and the fumonisins level in the maize. Of the infants, 191 consumed maize. The maize consumed by 131 infants contained fumonisins at levels varying from 21 to 3201 μg/kg. Fumonisins exposure in 26 infants exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg body weight. At 12 months of age, infants exposed to fumonisins intakes above the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bodyweight were significantly shorter by 1.3 cm and 328 g lighter. It appears that the exposure to fumonisins is associated with growth retardation. This is the first study to report an association between fumonisins exposures and growth retardation. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Shewiyo D.H.,Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority | Shewiyo D.H.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Shewiyo D.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Kaale E.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2012

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is still increasingly finding its way in pharmaceutical analysis in some parts of the world. With the advancements in the stationary phases and the introduction of densitometers as detection equipment, the technique achieves for given applications a precision and trueness comparable to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this review, the literature is surveyed for developed and validated HPTLC methods to assay active ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations published in the period 2005-2011. Procedures and approaches for method development, validation and quantitative assays are compared with the standard ways of conducting them. Applications of HPTLC in some other areas are also briefly highlighted. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Tanzania is one of the countries that suffer huge burden of malnutrition and food poverty with over two million people living with HIV/AIDS. Despite ongoing nutritional interventions in care and treatment clinics for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), a high proportion of them still face nutritional problems, with about 29% being underweight. This study therefore aimed assessing social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status among adults living with HIV/AIDS and attending care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in an urban district in Tanzania. An interview schedule was administered to 412 randomly selected adult male and female clients attending different CTCs in Ilala district. Their anthropometric measurements i.e. body weights and heights were also taken. Findings revealed that 18.4% of males and females were underweight according to their body mass indices. The risk of being underweight was higher among respondents who were young; who had never married; had no formal education as well as those who reported to be living with their families or friends, although these associations were not statistically significant. On the other hand, factors which had statistically significant association with nutritional status included the type of persons the client was living with and the habit of drinking alcohol. From the findings we conclude that PLWHA attending Care and Treatment Clinics in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam have problems with their nutrition with underweight being common among them. This suggests that the existing care and treatment clinics that provide nutritional support to PLWHA do not appear to address these issues in their totality. There is therefore, need to ensure that more efforts are geared towards providing nutritional counseling, support and encouragement of these clients within social contexts of their lives so in order for the current efforts to give best results. Source


Kimanya M.E.,Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority | De Meulenaer B.,Ghent University | Van Camp J.,Ghent University | Baert K.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2012

Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201μgkg -1. Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2μgkg -1 body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150μgkg -1. The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000μgkg -1. Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150μgkg -1. We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000μgkg -1 for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Geary P.A.,Queens University of Belfast | Chen G.,Queens University of Belfast | Kimanya M.E.,Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology | Shirima C.P.,Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

Residents of certain areas of Tanzania are exposed to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated maize based foods. In this study, 101 maize based porridge samples were collected from villages of Nyabula, Kikelelwa and Kigwa located in different agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. The samples were collected at three time points (time point 1, during maize harvest; time point 2, 6 months after harvest; time point 3, 12 months after harvest) over a 1-year period. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect and quantify 9 mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearaleneone (ZEN) in the samples following a QuEChERS extraction method. Eighty two percent of samples were co-contaminated with more than one group of mycotoxins. Fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) had the highest percentage occurrence in all 101 samples (100%) whereas OTA had the lowest (5%). For all three villages the mean concentration of FB1 was lowest in samples taken from time point 2. Conversely, In Kigwa village there was a distinct trend that AFB1 mean concentration was highest in samples taken from time point 2. DON concentration did not differ greatly between time points but the percentage occurrence varied between villages, most notably in Kigwa where 0% of samples tested positive. ZEN occurrence and mean concentration was highest in Kikelelwa. The results suggest that mycotoxin contamination in maize can vary based on season and agro-ecological zones. The high occurrence of multiple mycotoxins found in maize porridge, a common weaning food in Tanzania, presents a potential increase in the risk of exposure and significant health implications in children. © 2016. Source

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