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Murugadas V.,CIFT | Purushothaman V.,TANUVAS | Prabhahar P.,SRF
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

In India, most of the consumers procure the chicken as a raw meat in small retail outlets (slaughter house). But, there is no stringent regulations are available to monitor hygienic status of retail chicken outlets. Hence, the present study was planned to assess the existence of Salmonella in retail market in Chennai. To carry out the study, 422 samples were collected and analyzed by conventional and molecular techniques, then grouped based on O9, O4 and A-G serological reaction. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeted on ‘repeat sequence’ and invA gene was carried out for confirmation of Salmonella genus. To differentiate serotype multiplex PCR was carried out for phoP, hin and h-li genes. The study revealed that, highest recovery of Salmonella sp. were recorded in cloacal swabs. Totally, 11 (2.6%) samples were contaminated with Salmonella consist of 1.9% of Non-Chicken-Host-Adapted (Non-CHA) and 0.7% Chicken Host Adapted (CHA). The CHA Salmonella were further identified upto species level as S. Pullorum by rfbs gene polymorphism. It was observed that high percentage of Non-CHA Salmonella than CHA Salmonella in the retail market may possibly due to the carrier birds in the retail butcher outlet. Hence, strict regulation has to be implemented to control the Salmonella in retail outlets i.e., retailers should receive the birds after the Salmonella screening test. In addition controlling authority has to cancel the license of retail outlet/farm if they found positive for the carrier birds. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Jeyathilakan N.,Madras Veterinary College | Abdul Basith S.,Madras Veterinary College | John L.,Madras Veterinary College | Daniel Joy Chandran N.,TANUVAS | Dhinakar Raj G.,Madras Veterinary College
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2011

A novel in vitro flow through technique was developed and evaluated for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in sheep using hydatid specific non-cross reactive 8-kDa protein. The 8-kDa protein was prepared from hydatid cyst fluid by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow anion exchange chromatography. In this flow through technique, the 8-kDa antigen was coated on the nitrocellulose membrane of flow through device. Protein A colloidal gold was used as detector. The evaluation of the technique was performed by comparing 150 known positive hydatid serum and known negative serum collected from sheep. The test was shown to be high sensitivity and specificity that were closely correlated with those of EITB. Furthermore the immunofiltration-based assay is rapid (2. min) and easy to perform with no requirement of special skill, reagent and instrumentation. This suggests the flow through technique is an acceptance alternative to be used in clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipments as well as large scale screening of cystic echinococcosis both in the field with animal and human populations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kaneene J.B.,Michigan State University | Thiagarajan D.,Michigan State University | Chigwa F.,University of Malawi | Gondwe T.,University of Malawi | And 20 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

The dairy value chain (DVC) in Malawi has been identified by the USAID as a high potential area to develop markets and improve nutritional options, and smallholder dairying has received governmental priority within the livestock sector since 1979. Improvements in education, from the farmer to the academic researcher, are critical as part of capacity building to support the dairy industry in Malawi. Institutions of higher education, such as the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR), are in unique positions to build intellectual capital, address educational needs along the DVC, and sustainably develop the capacity to address development challenges. A tri-lateral partnership with universities from Malawi (LUANAR), the United States (Michigan State University) and India (Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) was formed, to utilize collective strengths and experiences, to build educational capacity at LUANAR and provide graduates with needed knowledge and skills to support the DVC in Malawi. The central aim of the project was to enhance higher education capacities at LUANAR for curriculum development, applied technical instruction, and agricultural community engagement in Malawi, using evidence-based strategies for economic development and enhancement of the dairy livestock value chain. Needs assessments of the DVC and its stakeholders were completed to identify needs, challenges and opportunities. Stakeholders (extension workers, farmers, processors, marketers/retailers) identified specific needs, skills, and services to support the DVC, and farmers identified specific constraints to dairy production and marketing. Strategies to improve LUANAR’s capacity to address DVC stakeholder needs were implemented. Institutional capacity building efforts, using a process-oriented framework emphasizing long-term sustained impact, focused on developing training and outreach focused on drivers of rural economic growth and poverty reduction, mainstreaming outreach into the local dairy sector, and promoting innovative outreach and teaching approaches. Communication between stakeholders and LUANAR improved, faculty received research and educational training, interdisciplinary teaching and research increased, and new curricula for DVC certificate programs were created. The learning experiences for LUANAR faculty and students resulted in significant scholarship pursuits, generation of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary DVC curriculum, field level-case studies and practical interventions to address stakeholder needs. The project enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration among researchers, and provided faculty with valuable training and skills to support training the next generation of educators, researchers, and workers that will serve the DVC in the future. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Chandrasekar A.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Raja A.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Dhinakar Raj G.,Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals | Thangavelu A.,Madras Veterinary College | Kumanan K.,TANUVAS
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

A reverse-transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for rapid diagnosis of infectious bronchitis (IB) in poultry by targeting the spike protein 2 gene (S2). RT-LAMP primers were designed for IBV-S2 targets and optimized to run at 60 °C for 45 min. As compared with RT-PCR, RT-LAMP was 100 times more sensitive for IBV-S2 gene. RT-LAMP showed specific amplification with IB viral genome but not with other avian respiratory pathogens due to their mismatching with IBV-S2-RT-LAMP primers. RT-LAMP reaction products were visually detected by the addition of propidium iodide stain. Out of 102 field samples tested for detection of IBV, RT-LAMP detected IBV in 12 samples for S2 gene whereas RT-PCR detected IBV in six samples for S2 gene. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP was 100 % and the specificity was 94 % for S2 gene. Since the developed RT-LAMP to detect IBV is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, it can be a useful diagnostic tool for detection of IB in poultry in less equipped laboratories and in field conditions. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

Prabakar G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Gopi M.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Karthik K.,TANUVAS | Shanmuganathan S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2016

The ever increasing consumer’s awareness and their concern over the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry products necessitate looking for an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Among the numerous alternatives like probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, the plant origin compound attracts more interest than else. The phytochemicals consists of various natural products that may be nutritional, non-nutritional or anti-nutritional in nature. These phyto-chemicals also act as an antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, digestive stimulant, immune-modulator, hypo-lipidemic agent and also heat stress alleviator. A compound of multi-functional can be considered as additive in animal production system. Their anti-oxidant activity and hypo-lipidemic property of these plant derived compounds will be attributed for the improvement of shelf-life of various animal or poultry products. Their hypolipidemic properties are used in production of lean meat production. These phytobiotics also impart readily acceptable flavour to the products especially meat and eggs. They aid in digestive process by stimulating the digestive secretions throughout the gastro-intestinal tract thereby increasing the overall digestibility of the nutrients and reduce the environmental pollution. Moreover, these botanical products are becoming more prominent in insect and pest control strategies due to their availability and cost. With their wide range of activities, these phytobiotics will go to be a new group of feed additives for better growth rather than simply as another alternate to in-feed antibiotics in food production industry. © 2016 Govinthasamy Prabakar et al.

Jeichitra V.,TANUVAS | Jeichitra V.,Madras Veterinary College | Rajendran R.,TANUVAS | Karunanithi K.,TANUVAS | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2016

Data on 1763 Mecheri sheep, maintained at the Mecheri Sheep Research Station, Pottaneri, Salem, south India, and recorded between 1991 and 2006, were analysed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The average weights at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.25 ± 0.01 and 17.48 ± 0.14 kg, respectively. The pre- and post-weaning (3-6, 3-9 and 3-12) average daily weight gains were 63.40 ± 0.58, 39.57 ± 0.57, 37.48 ± 0.44 and 34.31 ± 0.42 g respectively. The heritabilities of body weights and weight gains were in general moderate to high. The phenotypic and genetic correlations among body weights were positive and moderate to high. The phenotypic and genetic correlations among average daily gains were positive and low to high. The estimates of genetic correlation among average daily gains and body weights were positive and high with few exceptions. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

Jerome A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sarath T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Arunmozhi N.,TANUVAS
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2010

A conjoined twin monster fetus was delivered by per-vaginum in a pluriparous buffalo, which was presented with dystocia. The twin monster consisted of two female fetuses which were fully developed having eight limbs, i.e. four forelimbs and four hind limbs, joined together at the anterior part of the body. The monster can be classified as conjoined twin monster (Thoraco abdominopygophagus).

Thyagarajan D.,TANUVAS | Barathi M.,TANUVAS | Ezhil Valavan S.,TANUVAS
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Foods or food ingredients that provide a health benefit beyond normal nutritional effects through modulation of specific target functions are generally known as functional foods. All foods are functional to some extent as they provide taste, aroma, nutrients required for normal metabolism, growth and maintenance. However, foods are now being examined intensively because of latest trend towards preventive health care for added physiological, psychological and specific health benefits, which may reduce chronic disease risk and optimize health. Nutrients, herbals, fish, meat, dairy products and dietary supplements are major constituents of functional foods. India is the home of a large number of medicinal herbs, spices and tree species that have a substantially large domestic market with lesser foreign competitors at present. Over a long period, there were no strict pharmaceutical regulations on Ayurvedic and nutraceutical products in India. In the present scenario, nutraceuticals and functional foods industries have grown in to multi-million dollar industries. It is estimated that Canadian functional food industry is likely to grow up to $50 billion US dollars. Japan is reported to have the second largest functional food and neutraceutical markets in the world.

Manjunath S.,Madras Veterinary College | Vijayarani K.,Madras Veterinary College | Kumanan K.,TANUVAS
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The present study was carried out to clone and express fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus in mammalian expression system. The Newcastle disease virus (2K3) isolate from pigeon was propagated in 9-11 day-old embryonated chicken eggs and infected allantoic fluid was collected for RNA isolation. The fusion (F) gene of 1.68 Kb was amplified with cDNA as template and was cloned in TOPO cloning vector. The recombinant TOPO colonies were digested with NcoI and XhoI enzymes, the insert released was further ligated into pTriEx Neo 1.1 expression vector digested with the same enzymes and was transformed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant pTriEx colonies confirmed by colony PCR and restriction digestion were induced with 1mM IPTG which showed expressed fusion protein of 55 kDa at 4 h post induction and increased in overnight induced cultures. The recombinant pTriEx plasmid was transfected into vero cells. The cell lysate collected at 48 h and 72 h post transfection showed expressed fusion protein with the molecular weight of 55 kDa in 12% SDS-PAGE. The protein was further confirmed to be NDV specific by its immunoreactivity with NDV antiserum raised in rabbits showing fusion protein of 55 kDa. The immunofluorescence assay of transfected vero cells exhibited a bright cytoplasmic fluorescence confirming the fusion protein expression.

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