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Nahar M.S.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Colacino J.A.,University of Michigan | Calafat A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2012

Background: Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA), remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods. We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30) and rural (N = 30) Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47) from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results: Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL) were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL) according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions: Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles. © 2012 Nahar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Colacino J.A.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Calafat A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nahar M.S.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2011

Background: Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. Materials and methods. We collected one spot urine sample from 60 10-13 year old females, 30 from rural Egypt, and 30 from urban Egypt from July to October 2009. Samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites. Additionally, we collected anthropometrics as well as questionnaire data concerning food storage behaviors, cooking practices, and cosmetic use. Phthalate metabolite concentrations were compared between urban and rural Egyptians as well as to age and gender matched Americans. Results: Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), was detected at the highest concentration in urine of Egyptian girls (median: 43.2 ng/mL in rural, 98.8 ng/mL in urban). Concentrations of urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were comparable between Egyptians and age matched US girls. Storage of food in plastic containers was a statistically significant predictor of urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) concentrations when comparing covariate adjusted means. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were similar in Egyptian and US populations, suggesting that phthalate exposure also occurs in developing nations. Dietary intake is likely an important route of exposure to phthalates in both urban and rural populations. © 2011 Colacino et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Loading Tanta Cancer Center and the Gharbiah Cancer Society collaborators
Loading Tanta Cancer Center and the Gharbiah Cancer Society collaborators