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Lim W.C.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of aminosalicylates for the treatment of mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease have yielded conflicting results. A systematic review was conducted to critically examine current available data on the efficacy of sulfasalazine and mesalamine for inducing remission or clinical response in patients with mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease. To evaluate the efficacy of aminosalicylates compared to placebo, corticosteroids, and other aminosalicylates (alone or in combination with corticosteroids) for the treatment of mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease. Separate MEDLINE (1966-July 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 3, 2010) and EMBASE database searches (1985-July 2010) of all relevant English and non-English language articles were performed, followed by manual searches of the reference list from potentially relevant papers and review articles, as well as proceedings from annual meetings (1991-2010) of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) and American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of sulfasalazine or mesalamine in the treatment of mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease compared to placebo, corticosteroids, and other aminosalicylates (alone or in combination with corticosteroids) were included. Data extraction and assessment of methodological quality of each selected study was independently performed by the investigators and any disagreement was resolved by discussion and consensus. The primary outcome measure was a well defined clinical endpoint of induction of remission or response to treatment. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Pooled relative risks (RR) for inducing remission or clinical response and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated (random effects model) where appropriate. Sulfasalazine was more likely to induce remission (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.87; n = 263) compared to placebo with benefit confined mainly to patients with colitis. Sulfasalazine was less effective than corticosteroids (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.81; n = 260). Olsalazine was less effective than placebo in a single trial. Low dose mesalamine (1 to 2 g/day) was not superior to placebo (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.89-2.40; n = 302) and was less effective than corticosteroids. High dose mesalamine (3 to 4.5 g/day) was not superior to placebo for induction of remission (RR 2.02; 95% CI 0.75 to 5.45) or response (Weighted Mean Difference -19.8 points; 95% CI -46.2 to 6.7; n = 615). In a single randomized controlled trial, 5-ASA was inferior to budesonide (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.78). No statistically significant difference was found between high dose mesalamine and conventional corticosteroids (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.36; n = 178). However, relatively few patients were available for analysis. There was a lack of good quality clinical trials comparing sulfasalazine with other mesalamine formulations. Sulfasalazine has modest efficacy compared to placebo and is inferior to corticosteroids for the treatment of mild to moderately active Crohn's disease. Olsalazine and low dose mesalamine (1 to 2 g/day) are not superior to placebo. High dose mesalamine (3 to 4.5 g/day) is not more effective than placebo for inducing response or remission. High dose mesalamine was inferior to budesonide for inducing remission in a single trial. In conclusion, sulfasalazine shows modest efficacy for the treatment of active Crohn's disease. However, the existing data show little benefit for 5-aminosalicylates. Source

Chua I.T.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2013

To compare the short-term ambulatory function of elderly patients after fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures with either the AO-ASIF proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) device or the dynamic hip screw (DHS). 63 patients aged 60 years or older underwent fixation for unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO types A2 and A3) using the PFNA (n=25) or DHS (n=38). The decision for the type of implant used was based on the lead surgeon's preference, according to perceived fracture stability and clinical experience. In patients having PFNA fixation, weight bearing ambulation and rehabilitation was commenced on day 2. The extent of weight bearing was decided by the lead surgeon based on the stability of the fracture. In patients having DHS fixation, non-weight bearing and ambulation with a walking aid was commenced on day 2. Ambulatory function before injury and after surgery was measured using the Parker Mobility Score (PMS). The 2 groups were compared in terms of the PMS, ambulatory independence, and environmental mobility. Respectively in PFNA and DHS patients, 32% and 13% (p=0.035) were ambulant with a walking frame at discharge; the remainder were wheelchair bound. Patients treated with PFNA had significantly higher median PMS at 6 months (4 vs. 2, p=0.002), median ambulatory independence score at 6 months (4 vs. 3, p=0.004) and at 12 months (5 vs. 4, p=0.001), and median environmental mobility score at 6 months (2 vs. 1, p=0.007). They also had significantly higher percentage of patients able to ambulate outdoor and in community at 6 months (64% vs. 29%, p=0.02) and able to walk independently or with a walking aid at 12 months (96% vs. 69%, p=0.01). There were 3 complications. Two patients treated with PFNA had blade cut-out, owing to poor fracture reduction. One patient treated with DHS had screw cut-out and subsequently developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients with good pre-fracture ambulatory function stabilised with the PFNA resulted in better short-term ambulatory function. Source

Chan Y.H.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand | Year: 2014

Displaced distal radius fractures in active elderly patients with high functional demand present a clinical dilemma because current evidence is equivocal in the recommendation of treatment. Internal fixation is an increasingly popular option with proposed superior results. Our study aims to evaluate the results among a population of active elderly patients with displaced fractures managed with either cast immobilization or internal fixation with volar locking plate. Seventy-five patients (35 cast immobilization and 40 internal fixation) with mean age of 74 ± 7.5 years with minimum of 12 months follow-up were studied. The radiological and clinical parameters were assessed at three, six, and 12 months. Functional outcomes (DASH, Green-O'Brien) were assessed at 12 months. Patients who underwent surgery regain wrist motion and grip strength earlier, but this was not statistically significant after six months. Source

Lim G.H.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Prehospital and disaster medicine | Year: 2013

Health care institutions constantly must be prepared for disaster response. However, there are deficiencies in the current level of preparedness. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the perception of health care workers (HCWs) towards individual and institutional preparedness for a disaster. A survey on disaster incident preparedness was conducted among doctors, nurses, and allied health workers over a period of two months in 2010. The survey investigated perceptions of disaster preparedness at the individual and institutional level. Responses were measured using a five-point Likert scale. The primary outcomes were factors affecting HCWs' perception of institution and individual preparedness. Secondary outcomes were the proportions of staff willing to participate and to place importance on disaster response training and their knowledge of access to such training. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression was performed to determine the factors that influenced the HCWs' perception of their individual and institutional readiness. Odd ratios (ORs) of such factors were reported with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 1700 HCWs, 1534 (90.2%) completed the survey. 75.3% (1155/1534) felt that the institution was ready for a disaster incident, but only 36.4% (558/1534) felt that they (as individuals) were prepared. Some important factors associated with a positive perception of institution preparedness were leadership preparedness (OR = 13.19; 95% CI, 9.93-17.51), peer preparedness (OR = 6.11; 95% CI, 4.27-8.73) and availability of training opportunities (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 3.65-6.22). Some important factors associated with a positive perception of individual preparedness were prior experience in disaster response (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.99-3.93), institution preparedness (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 2.68-5.14), peer preparedness (OR = 3.49; 95% CI, 2.75-4.26), previous training in disaster response (OR = 3.48; 95% CI, 2.76-4.39) and family support (OR = 3.22; 95% CI, 2.54-4.07). Most (80.7%, 1238/1534) were willing to participate in future disaster incident response training, while 74.5% (1143/1534) felt that being able to respond to a disaster incident constitutes part of their professional competency. However, only 27.8% (426/1534) knew how to access these training opportunities. This study demonstrated that HCWs fare poorly in their perception of their individual preparedness. Important factors that might contribute to improving this perception at the individual and institution level have been identified. These factors could guide the review and implementation of future disaster incident response training in health care institutions. Source

Lim K.S.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital
Clinical Radiology | Year: 2014

The internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis are highly accurate for large tumours, but offer relatively low sensitivity for small (<2 cm) tumours. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that has been studied extensively as an aid to visualize various abdominal malignancies, including HCC in cirrhosis. DWI maps water diffusivity, which in HCC may be restricted as a result of changes ensuing from hepatocarcinogenesis. The present review is based on up-to-date evidence and describes the strengths and weaknesses of DWI, both as a standalone technique and as an adjunct sequence to conventional protocols, in the diagnosis, staging, prognostication, and assessment of treatment response of HCC in cirrhosis. © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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