Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Lumding Railway Colony, India

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal science University is the first veterinary university in Asia, founded in 1989 in Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai, India. It is composed of the Madras Veterinary College, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal and the Fisheries College and Research Institute in Thoothukkudi and the Institute of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduvalli, Chennai-52. Research farms are for leprosy bacteria, for prawn and edible fish culture, and for animal feed safety. Wikipedia.

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Kapgate S.S.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Barbuddhe S.B.,Campus Management | Kumanan K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Acta Virologica | Year: 2015

Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of aNGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of awide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 24.49K | Year: 2013

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Eswari S.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sai Kumar G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma G.T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Zygote | Year: 2013

Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of recombinant leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in culture media on blastocyst development, total cell number and blastocyst hatching rates and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of preimplantation buffalo embryos to determine whether they contain the LIF-encoding mRNA and its beta receptor (LIFRβ) genes in different stages of preimplantation buffalo embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes retrieved from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries were matured in vitro and fertilized using frozen buffalo semen. After 18 h of co-incubation with sperm, the presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid without (control) or with rhLIF (100 ng/ml). There was no significant difference in the overall cleavage rate up to morula stage however the development of blastocysts, hatching rate and total cell numbers were significantly higher in the LIF-treated group than control. Transcripts for LIFRβ were detected from immature, in vitro-matured oocytes and in the embryos up to blastocyst stage, while transcripts for the LIF were detected from 8-16-cell stage up to blastocyst, which indicated that embryo-derived LIF can act in an autocrine manner on differentiation process and blastocyst formation. This study indicated that the addition of LIF to the embryo culture medium improved development of blastocysts, functional (hatching) and morphological (number of cells) quality of the blastocysts produced in vitro. The stage-specific expression pattern of LIF and LIFRβ mRNA transcripts in buffalo embryos indicated that LIF might play an important role in the preimplantation development and subsequent implantation of buffalo embryos. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Angamuthu R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Baskaran S.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Gopal D.R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Devarajan J.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Kathaperumal K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) was developed. The method used a set of three pairs of primers to amplify the MEQ gene for detecting serotype 1 MDV. The MDV LAMP method did not cross-react with serotype 2 and serotype 3, nor did the LAMP primers have binding sites for the common avian DNA viruses (reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus, subgroup J of the avian leukosis virus). Additionally, the assay could detect up to 10 copies of the MEQ gene in theMDviral genome, and it had 10 times higher sensitivity than the traditional PCR methods. The LAMP master mix was stable for 90 days at -20°C. Furthermore, the efficiency of LAMP for detection of serotype 1 MDV in clinical samples was comparable to those of PCR and viral isolation. The LAMP procedure is simple and does not rely on any special equipment. The detection of serotype 1 MDV by LAMP will be useful for detecting and controlling oncogenic Marek's disease. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Gopal S.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Manoharan P.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Kathaperumal K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Chidambaram B.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Divya K.C.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Avian oncogenic viruses include Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly contagious herpesvirus, as well as retroviruses such as avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups A to J and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). In this study, we examined the incidence of these viruses in suspected samples collected from poultry layer farms of South India, mainly in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu, a highly dense poultry-growing area in India. The histopathology-positive tissue sections were identified and further confirmed by immunohistochemistry using virus-specific antibodies. The viruses belonging to all 3 groups (MDV, ALV, and REV) were isolated in a cell culture system and confirmed by immunofluorescence using virus-specific antibodies. PCR appeared to be the method of choice for rapid and accurate diagnosis of these viruses. The multiplex PCR primers specific to MDV, ALV, REV, and chicken DNA were designed for rapid differential diagnosis. The specificity of the primers was checked by amplification of DNA from virus-infected cell culture in comparison with uninfected samples, and sensitivity was evaluated by calculating the minimum copy number at which amplification occurs in the cloned PCR products. The sequences of the amplicons were compared by BLAST analysis. PCR tests demonstrated the presence of single, dual, or triple viruses in some of the samples. Of 169 samples screened by multiplex PCR, 9 samples were positive for MDV, 17 samples were positive for ALV, 12 samples were positive for REV, and 17 samples were positive for both ALV and REV. Three samples were positive for all three viruses. ALV-positive samples were further subjected to subgroup-specific PCR, which gave positive results for subgroups B and D but not for subgroup J. Multiplex PCR appeared to be a useful technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and detection of multiple infections of avian oncogenic viruses under field conditions. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Viswanathan K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Gopinath V.P.,Madras Veterinary College | Raj G.D.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Raj G.D.,Madras Veterinary College
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

In this report, calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized by continuous flow method using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as a medium and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The blood biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using the whole blood haemolysis, erythrocytes haemolysis and erythrocyte aggregation tests. Based on the results, we found that the synthesized β-CD-CaP nanoparticles did not cause any remarkable toxic effect. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The aminosilane functional group modified β-CD-CaP was used as tool for coupling of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The NDV conjugated nanoparticles were confirmed by using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy differential scanning calorimetry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Immunogenicity trials in chickens proved that β-CD-CaP-NDV used as a vaccine was better than the commercial vaccine when given oculonasally during the first 2 weeks post vaccination. The birds vaccinated with the above nano-NDV vaccine were completely protected against virulent NDV challenge. This study confirms that the oculonasal β-CD-CaP-NDV delivery of vaccines is a potential method for enhancing the immune responses of existing commercial vaccines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rajasekhar R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Roy P.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2014

A recombinant hexon antigen based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure the specific antibody in sera of chickens against Fowl adenovirus-4 (FAdV) causing Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). An immunodominant partial hexon gene of 737. bp was cloned into pRSET vector and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 DE3 pLys S. Expression was tested by Western Blot test. The purified recombinant protein antigen was used in coating ELISA plate for FAdV-4 serology. A linear relationship was found between the predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding observed serum titres as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to determine a standard curve from which an equation was derived that allowed the demonstration of this correlation. The equation was then used to convert the corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution directly into the predicted ELISA antibody titres. The assay proved to be sensitive, specific and accurate as compared to Q-AGID test. Recombinant antigen was also used in Dot ELISA. In an experimental vaccination of broiler chicken at 10 days old age, the geometric mean (GM) antibody titres as measured by ELISA ranged from 5.006. ±. 0.11. log. 10 to 4.526. ±. 0.04. log. 10 and by Dot ELISA titre were from 2.240. ±. 0.08. log. 10 to 0.180. ±. 0.04. log. 10 during 5th-8th weeks of age, results were compared with Q-AGID results. Field samples were collected randomly from breeder flocks, found to have antibody titre by both ELISA and Dot ELISA at 10th and only 75% samples were positive at 14th weeks of age. After revaccination at 16th weeks of age, all sera samples were found have considerably high antibody titre on 24th week but all samples were negative at 32nd weeks. Advantages of recombinant hexon antigen based ELISA and Dot ELISA in FAdV-4 serology have been discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Chaudhry U.,University of Calgary | Redman E.M.,University of Calgary | Raman M.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Gilleard J.S.,University of Calgary
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2015

It is important to understand how anthelmintic drug resistance mutations arise and spread in order to determine appropriate mitigation strategies. We hypothesised that a molecular genetic study of Haemonchus contortus in southern India, a region where resistance may be less advanced than in western Europe and North America, might provide some important insights into the origin and spread of anthelmintic resistance. The F200Y (T. AC) isotype-1 β-tubulin benzimidazole resistance mutation is common in H. contortus throughout the world and the F167Y (T. AC) and E198A (G. CA) mutations, although less common, have been reported in a number of different countries. We have investigated the haplotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of isotype-1 β-tubulin benzimidazole resistance alleles for 23 H. contortus populations from small ruminants across southern India. The F200Y (T. AC) mutation was most common, being detected in 18/23 populations at frequencies between 9% and 84% and the E198A (G. CA) mutation was also detected in 8/23 populations at frequencies between 8% and 18%. The F167Y (T. AC) mutation was not detected in any of the 23 populations. Phylogenetic haplotype network analysis suggested that the F200Y (T. AC) mutation has arisen multiple independent times in the region with at least three independent origins of resistance alleles across the populations surveyed. In contrast, the E198A (G. CA) mutation was present on a single haplotype which, given the high level of haplotypic diversity of the susceptible alleles in the region, suggests this particular mutation has spread from a single origin, likely by anthropogenic animal movement. Population genetic analysis of 12 of the H. contortus populations, using a panel of eight microsatellite markers, revealed extremely low genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with the hypothesis of high gene flow among sites. Additionally, there was no significant genetic differentiation between H. contortus taken from sheep and goats which is consistent with H. contortus populations being freely shared between these two different hosts. Overall, we believe these results provide the first clear genetic evidence for the spread of an anthelmintic resistance mutation to multiple different locations from a single origin. © 2015.

Sujatha T.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Narahari D.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was made on 96 'White Leghorn' hens on the influence of designer diets enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants from natural sources on egg yolk composition. The birds were divided into four equal groups viz. Control (without enrichment); FSE - (150 g flaxseeds + 200 mg vitamin E + 3 g spirulina/kg diet); FOSe (20 g fish oil + 0.2 mg organic Se (Sel-Plex) + 3 g spirulina/kg diet) and FSE + FOSe (75 g flaxseed + 10 g fish oil + 100 mg vitamin E + 0.1 mg organic Se + 3 g spirulina/kg diet). All three designer diets increased (p<0.01) the yolk carotenoid pigments and omega-3 fatty acid levels with proportionate reduction in saturated fatty acid levels and no significant change in the oleic acid levels in the yolk lipids. The three diets also reduced (p<0.01) the yolk cholesterol levels. Boiled eggs from all four groups had comparable sensory acceptability. Dietary Se and vitamin E supplementation acted synergistically in increasing omega-3 fatty acid levels in the egg. © 2010 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Anandh M.A.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2014

Cooked restructured buffalo meat rolls prepared from restructuring process were stored at 4 ± 1°C in polyethylene terephthalate laminated with polythene pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 30 days of storage. A significant decrease in pH, extract release volume values, was observed with increasing storage period. Overall days mean for moisture decreased with increasing storage period, however, no significant difference in overall days mean for moisture content was observed on from day 0 to day 30 of storage. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in thiobarbituric acid value and tyrosine value was observed with increase in storage period. Microbiological counts increased with the advancement of storage period. However, throughout the storage period, all microbial counts were within the acceptable limits of cooked meat products. Boiled restructured buffalo meat rolls did not show any symptoms of spoilage such as off odour and surface slime on day 30 of storage and were acceptable for sensory quality up to 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C) under vacuum packaging. Thus, the present study indicates that vacuum packaging could be used as a way to improve the shelf life of boiled restructured buffalo meat rolls without affecting the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the products. © 2014 Taylor & Francis

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