Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board

Chennai, India

Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board

Chennai, India
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Saravanathamizhan R.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Nandakumar V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chitra K.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Lee C.W.,Kyung Hee University
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

Electrochemical treatment of real acidic effluent of copper phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant with a view to explore the feasibility of the simultaneous removal of copper and phthalocyanine using a bipolar disc electrochemical reactor has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in a bipolar capillary gap disc stack electrochemical reactor under batch recirculation mode. Electrodes were RuO2 and IrO2 coated on titanium as anode and titanium as cathode. Effects of current density, electrolysis time and effluent flow rate on copper recovery and simultaneous COD removal and energy consumption were critically examined. The current density of 2.5Adm-2 and flow rate of 20Lh-1 achieved 91.1% COD removal and 90.1% copper recovery with the energy consumption of 50.86kWhkg-1 for COD removal and simultaneous recovery of copper in a bipolar disc stack reactor. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


News Article | January 13, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

Time is running out for Indian scientists to build a facility that would let them compete in one of the hottest races in physics. The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) — an effort to learn about the masses and other properties of mysterious particles called neutrinos — is under threat as a result of baseless rumours about its aims and environmental impact. Despite a government go-ahead in January 2015 to build a massive detector under a mountain in the southern state of Tamil Nadu, opposition from environmentalists and state politicians means that not a single grain of earth has been shifted. Neutrinos are abundant subatomic particles that are extremely hard to detect. Billions pass through each square centimetre of Earth every second, but barely any leave a trace. The INO would study neutrinos produced when cosmic rays strike the atmosphere, and would seek to reveal the relative masses of the three known types of neutrino. The measurements could lead to Nobel-prize-worthy insights into the relationship between nature’s four fundamental forces, as well as the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the Universe. But if the INO is not built soon, other projects — including one that broke ground in China a year ago — may get there first, says D. Indumathi, a theorist at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Chennai who is part of the INO collaboration, and coordinates outreach for it. “Longer than a year of delay and I think it will be difficult to have viable physics goals, at least of the current type,” she says. Conceived in 2001 and originally slated for completion in 2012, the INO has faced a rocky path to construction. To shield the enormous detector from the confounding zoo of subatomic particles that pummels Earth’s surface, the facility needs to be built more than a kilo­metre underground. The first earmarked site was ruled out in 2009 after a lengthy battle with conservationists over its proximity to an elephant and tiger reserve. The current site, in the Tamil Nadu district of Theni, faced opposition as soon as it was put forward in 2010. Local villagers worried that the facility would deplete or contaminate their restricted water supply, and cut off access to land for grazing livestock, says Indumathi. But, she says, villagers consented after scientists assured them that the facility would not interfere with their resources. Since then, however, local environmental organizations and regional politicians have taken up the issue, and the list of objections has swelled to include fears that the lab will emit radiation and store nuclear weapons, and that the excavation will threaten a nearby dam. The rumours are untrue, says Naba Mondal, a physicist at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai who leads the INO collaboration. INO scientists have visited schools and held community meetings to counter misconceptions. But many villagers have turned against the project. “They don’t know what the truth is, and I can understand that,” says Mondal. At the root of the rumours is mistrust of the state and the scientific establishment, says Govind Krishnan, an Indian journalist who has closely followed the project. He believes that the fears that have been raised lie “in the realm of fantasy”, but are understandable given the poor environmental record of past state-sponsored construction projects. Govind disagrees with activists who say that INO scientists have ignored the project’s impact on the poor, but he says that scientists’ efforts have been hampered by class and linguistic barriers. India’s government allocated 15 billion rupees (US$225 million) to construction when it gave the INO the green light last year, but the Madras High Court in Chennai brought the project to a standstill in March following a petition from local activists and politicians. The court said that the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board must give consent before construction can start. This is normally a routine, 45-day step, but the process has so far taken 9 months, says Mondal. The politically contentious nature of the project means that the local board may well delay until after state elections in May. “I am confident that it will eventually be approved, but the question is when,” says Mondal. The delay is damaging the morale of students and researchers on the project, he adds. Meanwhile, China expects to complete the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory in 2019. To remain competitive, the INO must start construction in the next few months, says Mondal. “Science is something you have to do in time. If you are not in time, your results may not be that important.” But neutrino physicists say that even if the INO loses the race, its findings would help to corroborate discoveries at other detectors. The INO takes a unique approach — using 50,000 tonnes of magnetized iron to separate atmospheric neutrino observations from their antineutrino counterparts. That will make its results interesting whenever they come out, says Mark Messier, a physicist at Indiana University Bloomington and co-spokesperson for the NOvA Neutrino Experiment at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, which also has a chance of solving the neutrino-mass mystery. Researchers point to other benefits, too. Putting a physics laboratory deep underground gives India the opportunity to host research into areas such as dark matter, they say — and it is empowering for Indian scientists to bring a major physics facility to fruition. “Already I’ve seen the tremendous difference it’s made to students having an experiment on which they call the shots,” says Indumathi. “So I really don’t care whether we get a Nobel prize or not.”


Kumar V.,SRM University | Chithra K.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2013

This paper presents the result of a laboratory investigation performed for the removal of chromium by electrokinetic method from spiked soils (kaolin, loam and sand) Electrokinetic experiment were conducted for chromium concentration of 500, 1000, 1500mg/kg and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 VDC/cm was supplied. The effect of enhanced oxalic acid (0.3N) on the electro kinetic remediation processes was studied. The result showed that the percentage removal of Cr (VI) from the contaminated soils enhanced to 82%, 63.8% and 69% for kaolin, loam and sand respectively when oxalic acid was used as purging solution.


Rajamanickam R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Nagan S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Cement production consumes large amounts of both raw materials and fuel and produces substantial CO2 emissions. The use of alternative fuels and raw materials in cement manufacturing can reduce the amount of fossil fuels and virgin raw materials needed, and thus reduce the overall environmental impact of the operations. These alternative materials may be either by-products from other industrial processes, or waste streams such as municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, ETP sludge, discarded tyres and plastics. In the State of Tamil Nadu in India, large number of textile dyeing units are in operation in Tiruppur, Erode, Namakkal and Karur districts. These units generate huge quantity of sludge from the treatment of trade effluent, which is categorized as hazardous waste needs to be disposed properly. M/s. Ultra Tech Cement Limited, Reddipalayam, Ariyalur District carried out a trial run of co-processing of textile dyeing industry ETP sludge in their cement plant. The trial study reveals that there is no significant variation in the quality of stack emission, ambient air quality, clinker composition, and the physical strength of cement. There is no leaching of heavy metals from the clinker. This also conserves the raw material (lime stone) consumption. Thus co-processing of textile dyeing industry ETP sludge in the cement industry is a sustainable development concept based on the principles of making one industry's waste another's raw material. Copyright © EM International.


Umaiyakunjaram R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Umaiyakunjaram R.,Anna University | Shanmugam P.,Central Leather Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4 μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160 L.g-1 CODremoved) coincided with high r2 values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Central Leather Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2016

This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4m) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater.


Maran J.P.,Kongu Engineering College | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Degradation of cassava (tapioca) starch based composite films during indoor soil burial experiments was analyzed using five factors, three levels Box-Behnken response surface design. From the results, it was observed that, increased water sorption promotes the entry of soil microorganism and it utilizes the starch films as a source of energy for their growth. The reduction in weight and mechanical property was associated with preferential loss of matrix components of the films. The microorganisms associated with the degradation of films were quantified and identified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the formation of patterns and cracks on the surface of the materials aged in the soils. From the results, second order polynomial models were developed for the responses. The results of the study demonstrated that, the tapioca starch based composites were showed a limited lifetime in biotic environment which make them suitable for being disposed in landfills after their use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

The interactive effects of influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin), hydraulic retention time (HRT), and temperature on the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, operated in continuous mode, were studied for the anaerobic biodegradation of bagasse effluent from pulp and paper industry. Experiments were conducted based on Box–Behnken design and analyzed using response surface methodology. CODin (4,400–6,800 mg/l), HRT (15–27 h), and temperature (20–40°C) were the operating variables considered for this study. Three dependent parameters viz., percentage of COD removal, COD removal rate, and biogas production were either directly measured or calculated as response. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2) of 0.9990 for percentage COD removal, 0.9960 for COD removal rate, and 0.9953 for biogas production thus ensuring a satisfactory fit of the second-order polynomial regression model with the experimental data. Maximum values of percentage COD removal (84.3%), COD removal rate (230.9 mg/l h), and biogas production (21.2 l/d) were observed at optimum CODin, HRT, and temperature of 6212 mg/l, 23 h, and 35°C, respectively. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Prakash Maran J.,Kongu Engineering College | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP) ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), standard error of prediction (SEP), model predictive error (MPE), chi square statistic (χ2), and coefficient of determination (R2) based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.


Prakash Maran J.,Kongu Engineering College | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180 s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3 g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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