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Saravanathamizhan R.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Nandakumar V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chitra K.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Lee C.W.,Kyung Hee University
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

Electrochemical treatment of real acidic effluent of copper phthalocyanine dye manufacturing plant with a view to explore the feasibility of the simultaneous removal of copper and phthalocyanine using a bipolar disc electrochemical reactor has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in a bipolar capillary gap disc stack electrochemical reactor under batch recirculation mode. Electrodes were RuO2 and IrO2 coated on titanium as anode and titanium as cathode. Effects of current density, electrolysis time and effluent flow rate on copper recovery and simultaneous COD removal and energy consumption were critically examined. The current density of 2.5Adm-2 and flow rate of 20Lh-1 achieved 91.1% COD removal and 90.1% copper recovery with the energy consumption of 50.86kWhkg-1 for COD removal and simultaneous recovery of copper in a bipolar disc stack reactor. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source


Rajamanickam R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Nagan S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Pollution caused by sewage discharged from cities and towns is the primary cause for degradation of our water resources. It is the obligatory responsibility of every local body to collect, transport, treat and dispose wastewater produced in their respective jurisdictions. Cyclic activated sludge process technology (C. Tech) is an advanced technology of sequential batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of sewage. It operates in a cycle of batches. Each cycle is of 3-5 hrs duration, during which all treatment steps take place. Two or more modules are provided to ensure continuous treatment of wastewater. The complete process including removal of organics, N and P reduction takes place in a single reactor, within which all biological treatment steps take place sequentially. One cycle/sequence of operation consists of 3 steps - filling & aeration, settling and decantation. The settled sludge from the basin shows sludge volume index (SVI) < 120 and excellent settling characteristics. The excess sludge wasted from the basin is fully digested and can be used as manure directly after dewatering. No additional settling unit, secondary clarifier is required. In Tamil Nadu, Madurai Corporation has constructed two STPs of C-Tech type with capacity of 125 MLD STP at Avaniapuram and 45.7MLD at Sakkimangalam under JuNURM Scheme. These plants were commissioned in 2011. The report of analysis of treated sewage sample reveals that BOD is < 9 mg/L, COD < 25mg/L and TSS is < 8 mg/L. The treated sewage is used for farming. By considering the performance of the existing plants in operation in India, it is concluded that cyclic activated sludge process is one of the best technologies which can be adopted by the local bodies. Copyright © EM International. Source


Maran J.P.,Kongu Engineering College | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Degradation of cassava (tapioca) starch based composite films during indoor soil burial experiments was analyzed using five factors, three levels Box-Behnken response surface design. From the results, it was observed that, increased water sorption promotes the entry of soil microorganism and it utilizes the starch films as a source of energy for their growth. The reduction in weight and mechanical property was associated with preferential loss of matrix components of the films. The microorganisms associated with the degradation of films were quantified and identified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the formation of patterns and cracks on the surface of the materials aged in the soils. From the results, second order polynomial models were developed for the responses. The results of the study demonstrated that, the tapioca starch based composites were showed a limited lifetime in biotic environment which make them suitable for being disposed in landfills after their use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

The interactive effects of influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin), hydraulic retention time (HRT), and temperature on the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, operated in continuous mode, were studied for the anaerobic biodegradation of bagasse effluent from pulp and paper industry. Experiments were conducted based on Box–Behnken design and analyzed using response surface methodology. CODin (4,400–6,800 mg/l), HRT (15–27 h), and temperature (20–40°C) were the operating variables considered for this study. Three dependent parameters viz., percentage of COD removal, COD removal rate, and biogas production were either directly measured or calculated as response. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2) of 0.9990 for percentage COD removal, 0.9960 for COD removal rate, and 0.9953 for biogas production thus ensuring a satisfactory fit of the second-order polynomial regression model with the experimental data. Maximum values of percentage COD removal (84.3%), COD removal rate (230.9 mg/l h), and biogas production (21.2 l/d) were observed at optimum CODin, HRT, and temperature of 6212 mg/l, 23 h, and 35°C, respectively. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Prakash Maran J.,Kongu Engineering College | Sivakumar V.,Kongu Engineering College | Thirugnanasambandham K.,Kongu Engineering College | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP) ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), standard error of prediction (SEP), model predictive error (MPE), chi square statistic (χ2), and coefficient of determination (R2) based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. Source

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