Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-2-5-01 | Award Amount: 7.58M | Year: 2010
VEG-i-TRADE provides platforms to identify impacts of anticipated climate change and globalisation on food safety, microbiological and chemical hazards, of fresh produce and derived food products. Control measures of managerial and technological nature will be developed in the supply chain of crop production, post-harvest processing and logistics to minimize food safety risks. The assessment of the performance of horticultural safety management systems by a novel diagnostic instrument at EU level exemplified by several countries in Europe and tailored on a global level including major EU trade partners from various climate zones will lead to recommendations on European and global level on quality assurance and the setting of science-based performance objectives. VEG-i-TRADE will pro-actively invest in problem solving technologies for safe produce investigating aspects of water quality and water treatment, horticultural production practices, disinfection treatment and packaging technologies. These control measures will be exploited in collaboration with SMEs and industrial partners. Baseline studies on the hazards, intervention technologies and best practices in the fresh produce chain will provide input for both microbial and chemical risk assessment to elaborate support to risk-based sampling plans, evaluate the risks of newly identified threats as affected by the global trade system and anticipated climate change. The project output will craft a discussion forum for stakeholders in the global food chain reflecting on issues of acceptable risk, sustainability of fresh produce production and long term strategy of international food trade, while making no compromise in food safety for European consumers and in respectation of food sovereignty. Risk communication to increase awareness of trade partners production systems and the uneven consumer behaviour will provide key conditions for prioritisation of risk management strategies.
Raja K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2017
Polyembryonic seeds of Kaffir lime showed polymorphism for number of embryos, their viability and the vigour of the seedlings. This polymorphism was determined by the embryo size, weight and accumulation of reserve materials. In general, the seed has a maximum of 5.4 embryos with an average of 2.9. Correlation was observed between the seed size and the number of embryos: heavier seeds possessed more embryos. Tetrazolium viability staining was positively correlated with the number of seedlings produced from the polyembryonic seeds. The viability of the embryos varied within a seed with some embryos viable and the rest non-viable reflecting the number of seedlings produced per seed that was less than the number of embryos actually present. Significant differences were also noticed between single seedlings that possessed higher vigour than seedlings arising from polyembryonic seeds.
Chitra R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2017
Stability analysis were done in 42 coriander genotypes including three check varieties during rabi 2010-11 and 2014-15 at TNAU, Coimbatore with per se performance. The analysis of pooled data indicated highly significant differences among the genotypes and environments for all the traits. The variance due to genotype and environments were highly significant for all the traits. Highly significant pooled deviation for umbels per plant and seed yield per hectare and highly significant G × E (linear) interaction for pods per plant and seed yield per plant indicated the preponderance of non-linear components of G × E interaction. The genotype CS 245 had shown consistent performance and stability in wider environments for seed yield per plant, whereas CS 14 has shown consistent performance in poor environment for seed yield per plant. © 2017, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.
Ashokkumar K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2015
Gloriosa superba (L.) is a perennial creeper in the Liliaceae family and is native to Africa and South-East Asia. G. superba is a national flower of Zimbabwe, and jointly it is the state flower of Tamil Nadu state in India. It is widely used as a medicinal plant, and it has two toxic alkaloids namely, Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. Similar to many poisonous plants, it has a long history of use in folk medicine and along with several related genera that contain colchicine it has been used to treat. Whole plant of G. superba keeps several biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic properties. Furthermore, G. superba is a good abortifacient and causing expulsion of fetus from the womb. Therefore, based on the aforementioned consideration, this article reviews the most updated information of the phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of G. superba extract, including its miscellaneous uses. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.
Geetha T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Murugan N.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Annual Research and Review in Biology | Year: 2017
Plant growth regulators are organic compounds synthesized in specified plant parts in small quantity and are transported to the place of requirement leading to a change in physiological responses. Plant growth regulators can be classified into growth promoters and growth retardants. Plant growth regulators are auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin and growth retardants are Abscisic acid and ethylene. The latest one added to the growth promoter is Brassinosteroid, used to translocate the nitrogen and phosphorus. Triacontanol is one of the commercial formulations and used to increase the moisture and protein content of leaves, which ultimately built the disease resistance in silkworm. Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria stimulates the plant growth regulators like auxins, gibberellins etc., and help in better nutrient uptake and increase tolerance. Vermicompost also contains some plant growth regulators. The combined effect of different plant growth regulators will give positive result in mulberry growth. © 2017 Geetha and Murugan.
Thilagavathi M.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Chandrasekaran M.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2017
The present study analysed the economic and environmental benefits due to bio-pesticide (Pseudomonas fluorescens) application in paddy cultivation. The effect of bio pesticide: Pseudomonas fluorescens was the highest at 7.36% in paddy productivity. The hazardous level of pesticide use was minimized in biopesticide user's farms, which was indicated by the differences in EIQ field rating value per ha (-58.13)) between users (EIQ field rating 42.43) and non-users (EIQ field rating 100.56). It would imply that there is a substantial reduction in pesticide pollutants in soil and water of bio pesticide user's farms. The non availability of quality product (mean score value of 67.50) and availability of less virulent culture in the market (mean score value 66.20) were the major constraints realized by the farmers in its adoption. Hence the bio pesticide, Pseudomonas fluorescens has positive impact (both economically and environmentally) on paddy production.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-02 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010
Jatropha curcas shows a big promise towards sustainable and affordable biofuels. Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. JATROPT aims at linking high quality research groups and companies that are now operating in different continents in order to achieve a large synergy in research and development of jatropha as a biofuel crop. In five Workpackages (Breeding, Genetic tools, Sustainable Agrosystems, Demonstrating and Dissemination), the following aims are pursued: 1) Achieve a world wide germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas, molecularly characterised in order to classify the collection into groups with similar genetic backgrounds; evaluation of elite germplasm of this collection in Asia, Africa and Latin-America; linking segregating population based on parents from different parts of the world and creating a global Jatropha linkage map. 2) Develop genetic information and marker tools (genetics of toxic/low toxic trait, branching patterns; disease resistance) to speed up the breeding process. 3) Develop agrosystems that yield sustainable and affordable biofuels - and interesting uses of the co-products (biomass/protein residues after oil extraction), with a focus on Pro Poor development and on designing systems in which competion for food and fuel can be minimised; 4) Demonstration of the potential of local/regional use of produced biofuels to increase agricultural and general economic productivity will be investigated. 5) Achieve dissemination of knowledge on quality of germplasm, on genetics and sustainable agrosystems setting up distribution of combined packages of agronomic guidelines and germplasm.
Rajasekaran S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Spine | Year: 2016
STUDY DESIGN.: Prospective genetic association study OBJECTIVE.: To document the variations in the genetic associations, when different MRI phenotypes, age stratification, cohort size and sequence of cohort inclusion are varied in the same study population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Genetic associations with disc degeneration have shown high inconsistency, generally attributed to hereditary factors and ethnic variations. However the effect of different phenotypes, size of the study population, age of the cohort etc have not been documented clearly. METHODS.: 71 SNPs of 41 candidate genes were correlated to six MRI markers of disc degeneration (annular tears, Pfirmannʼs grading, Schmorlʼs nodes, Modic changes, Total Endplate Damage score and disc bulge) in 809 patients with back pain and/or sciatica. In the same study group, the correlations were then re-tested for different age groups, different sample size and sequence of subject inclusion (first 404 and the second 405) and the differences documented. RESULTS.: The mean age of population (M: 455, F: 354) was 36.7?±?10.8 years. Different genetic associations were found with different phenotypes - Disc bulge with three SNPs of CILP; Annular tears with rs2249350 of ADAMTS5 and rs11247361 IGF1R; Modic changes with VDR and MMP20; Pfirmannʼs grading with three SNPs of MMP20 and Schmorlʼs node with SNPs of CALM1 and FN1 and none with TEPS.Subgroup analysis based on three age groups and dividing the total population into two groups also completely changed the associations for all the six radiographic parameters. CONCLUSIONS.: In the same study population, SNP associations completely change with different phenotypes. Variations in age, inclusion sequence and sample size resulted in change of genetic associations. Our study questions the validity of previous studies and necessitates the need for standardizing the description of disc degeneration, phenotype selection, study sample size, age and other variables in future studies.Level of Evidence: 4 Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kasirajan S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Ngouajio M.,Michigan State University
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2012
The use of plastic mulch in agriculture has increased dramatically in the last 10 years throughout the world. This increase is due to benefits such as increase in soil temperature, reduced weed pressure, moisture conservation, reduction of certain insect pests, higher crop yields, and more efficient use of soil nutrients. However, disposing of used plastic films, which cause pollution, has led to development of photodegradable and biodegradable mulches. Here we review the use of plastic mulches in agriculture, with special reference to biodegradable mulches. Major topics discussed are (1) history of plastic mulch and impact on crop yield and pest management, (2) limitations of polyethylene mulches and potential alternatives, (3) biodegradable and photodegradable plastic mulches, (4) field performance of biodegradable mulches, and (5) use of biodegradable plastic mulches in organic production. We found that (1) despite multiple benefits, removal and disposal of conventional polyethylene mulches remains a major agronomic, economic, and environmental constraint; (2) early use of photodegradable plastic mulch during the 1970s and 1980s, wrongly named biodegradable mulch films, discouraged adoption of new biodegradable mulch films because they were too expensive and their breakdown was unpredictable; (3) biodegradable plastic films are converted through microbial activity in the soil to carbon dioxide, water, and natural substances; (4) polymers such as poly(lactic acid), poly(butylene adipatecoterephthalate), poly(?-caprolactone), and starch-based polymer blends or copolymers can degrade when exposed to bioactive environments such as soil and compost; (5)with truly biodegradable materials obtained from petroleum and natural resources, opportunity for using biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulch films has become more viable; and (6) the source of polymer and additives may limit use of some biodegradable mulches in organic production. More knowledge is needed on the effect of biodegradable mulches on crop growth, microclimate modifications, soil biota, soil fertility, and yields. © The Author(s) 2012.
Seenivasan N.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011
The talc-based formulations of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and egg parasitic fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, were evaluated as seed treatment, soil application and combination of both for the management of M. graminicola in fields of rice grown under system of rice intensification. Both the bioformulations significantly reduced the root invasion and soil populations of M. graminicola but P. fluorescens was most effective when applied as seed cum soil application and seed treatment alone. Effect of these treatments was comparable with the standard chemical carbofuran application. The introduced P. fluorescens survived significantly in rice roots when applied as seed cum soil application and seed application alone than as soil application. There was significant increase in phenol, peroxidase and chitinase accumulation in plants treated with P. fluorescens. Application of bioagents had positive influence on growth parameters such as plant height, root length, shoot weight, root weight and number of tillers per hill. Application of P. fluorescens as seed cum soil treatment resulted in higher grain yield, which was 20.6%-26.9% increase over control followed by P. fluorescens as seed treatment alone that increased grain yield of rice by 10.7%-11.2% than control. However, economic returns per investment was higher when P. fluorescens was applied as seed treatment alone (1:8.8-1:12.0 incremental cost benefit ratio) followed by the P. fluorescens as seed cum soil treatment (1:6.2-1:9.7 incremental cost benefit ratio). © 2011 Taylor & Francis.