Praneetha S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding | Year: 2017
An investigation was conducted at the University orchard, Department of Vegetable crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year 2010- 2011 to evaluate the germplasm consisted of 182 accessions along with six check varieties viz., Pusa purple Long, Pusa Shyamala, Pusa Kranti, Punjab Sadabahar (received from National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi) and CO1 and CO2 (released from TNAU, Coimbatore) were taken for evaluation. They were evaluated for their plant, fruit characters along with shoot and fruit borer infestation. The study showed that the accessions viz., IC 354546, IC 112736 and EC 467272 were identified as best performers as they showed favourable characters for earliness to flowering and harvest, number of fruits / plant and yield. Also they recorded lowest level of shoot and fruit borer infestation and high marketable yield.
Nagar B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Rawat S.,Central University of Costa Rica
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016
This paper investigates the potential of additional carbon sequestration by silvicultural management practices, as a part of climate change mitigation strategies. Plantation of forests using fast growing species has been adopted as an option for sustainable supply of tree products and also for reducing the pressure on natural forest in many countries. Thus development and implementation of adaptation strategies is necessary to assess the likely impacts of projected climate change on existing forests and afforested areas to enhance the resilience of forests to climate change. The research results revealed that the total carbon stock both in biomass and soil organic carbon increased with increase in planting density and clearly showed that the number of trees per hectare plays an important role in total carbon production by contributing to the increasein the removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere directly. Hence, it can be concluded that the tree density and carbon stock are linearly correlated to each other. Research findings of this study will help in achieving the set of seven criteria established by Rio conference in 1992 to meet the needs of society, and provision of legal, institutional and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management, and also will help in achieving the one of the best silviculture practices for sustainable management of forests.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-2-5-01 | Award Amount: 7.58M | Year: 2010
VEG-i-TRADE provides platforms to identify impacts of anticipated climate change and globalisation on food safety, microbiological and chemical hazards, of fresh produce and derived food products. Control measures of managerial and technological nature will be developed in the supply chain of crop production, post-harvest processing and logistics to minimize food safety risks. The assessment of the performance of horticultural safety management systems by a novel diagnostic instrument at EU level exemplified by several countries in Europe and tailored on a global level including major EU trade partners from various climate zones will lead to recommendations on European and global level on quality assurance and the setting of science-based performance objectives. VEG-i-TRADE will pro-actively invest in problem solving technologies for safe produce investigating aspects of water quality and water treatment, horticultural production practices, disinfection treatment and packaging technologies. These control measures will be exploited in collaboration with SMEs and industrial partners. Baseline studies on the hazards, intervention technologies and best practices in the fresh produce chain will provide input for both microbial and chemical risk assessment to elaborate support to risk-based sampling plans, evaluate the risks of newly identified threats as affected by the global trade system and anticipated climate change. The project output will craft a discussion forum for stakeholders in the global food chain reflecting on issues of acceptable risk, sustainability of fresh produce production and long term strategy of international food trade, while making no compromise in food safety for European consumers and in respectation of food sovereignty. Risk communication to increase awareness of trade partners production systems and the uneven consumer behaviour will provide key conditions for prioritisation of risk management strategies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-02 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010
Jatropha curcas shows a big promise towards sustainable and affordable biofuels. Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. JATROPT aims at linking high quality research groups and companies that are now operating in different continents in order to achieve a large synergy in research and development of jatropha as a biofuel crop. In five Workpackages (Breeding, Genetic tools, Sustainable Agrosystems, Demonstrating and Dissemination), the following aims are pursued: 1) Achieve a world wide germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas, molecularly characterised in order to classify the collection into groups with similar genetic backgrounds; evaluation of elite germplasm of this collection in Asia, Africa and Latin-America; linking segregating population based on parents from different parts of the world and creating a global Jatropha linkage map. 2) Develop genetic information and marker tools (genetics of toxic/low toxic trait, branching patterns; disease resistance) to speed up the breeding process. 3) Develop agrosystems that yield sustainable and affordable biofuels - and interesting uses of the co-products (biomass/protein residues after oil extraction), with a focus on Pro Poor development and on designing systems in which competion for food and fuel can be minimised; 4) Demonstration of the potential of local/regional use of produced biofuels to increase agricultural and general economic productivity will be investigated. 5) Achieve dissemination of knowledge on quality of germplasm, on genetics and sustainable agrosystems setting up distribution of combined packages of agronomic guidelines and germplasm.
Subramanian P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Sampathrajan A.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Venkatachalam P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011
Biomaterials can be converted into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels through thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. Thermochemical conversion of granular biomaterials is difficult because of its physical nature and one of the suitable processes is fluidized bed gasification. In this study, coir pith, rice husk and saw dust were selected and synthetic gas was generated using a fluidized bed gasifier. Gas compositions of product gas were analyzed and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was in the range of 8.24-19.55 and 10.21-17.14, respectively. The effect of equivalence ratio (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) and reaction time (at 10min interval) on gas constituents was studied. The gas yield for coir pith, rice husk and sawdust were found to be in the range of 1.98-3.24, 1.79-2.81 and 2.18-3.70Nm3kg-1, respectively. Models were developed to study the influence of biomaterial properties and operating conditions on molar concentration of gas constituents and energy output. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Maski D.,Iowa State University |
Durairaj D.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Electrostatics | Year: 2010
Combinations of electrode voltage, liquid flow rate, and properties can enhance chargeability of electrostatic sprays for effective pesticide application, though the combined effects of these parameters are not well understood. Generally, 4 kV voltage and lower (30, 45, and 60 mL min-1) flow rate of tank water produced greater chargeability compared to ground water sprays. The rate of increase in spray chargeability with decreased liquid flow rate was higher in the lower flow rates. The outcome of the study will be helpful for the more targeted and environmentally safe application of pesticide sprays and development of suitable electrostatic spraying systems.
Rajasekaran S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Spine | Year: 2016
STUDY DESIGN.: Prospective genetic association study OBJECTIVE.: To document the variations in the genetic associations, when different MRI phenotypes, age stratification, cohort size and sequence of cohort inclusion are varied in the same study population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Genetic associations with disc degeneration have shown high inconsistency, generally attributed to hereditary factors and ethnic variations. However the effect of different phenotypes, size of the study population, age of the cohort etc have not been documented clearly. METHODS.: 71 SNPs of 41 candidate genes were correlated to six MRI markers of disc degeneration (annular tears, Pfirmannʼs grading, Schmorlʼs nodes, Modic changes, Total Endplate Damage score and disc bulge) in 809 patients with back pain and/or sciatica. In the same study group, the correlations were then re-tested for different age groups, different sample size and sequence of subject inclusion (first 404 and the second 405) and the differences documented. RESULTS.: The mean age of population (M: 455, F: 354) was 36.7?±?10.8 years. Different genetic associations were found with different phenotypes - Disc bulge with three SNPs of CILP; Annular tears with rs2249350 of ADAMTS5 and rs11247361 IGF1R; Modic changes with VDR and MMP20; Pfirmannʼs grading with three SNPs of MMP20 and Schmorlʼs node with SNPs of CALM1 and FN1 and none with TEPS.Subgroup analysis based on three age groups and dividing the total population into two groups also completely changed the associations for all the six radiographic parameters. CONCLUSIONS.: In the same study population, SNP associations completely change with different phenotypes. Variations in age, inclusion sequence and sample size resulted in change of genetic associations. Our study questions the validity of previous studies and necessitates the need for standardizing the description of disc degeneration, phenotype selection, study sample size, age and other variables in future studies.Level of Evidence: 4 Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Anita B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2012
The biocidal activity of various isothiocyanates (ITCs) released by Brassica tissues is well-known for its potential to suppress a range of soil-borne pests and diseases. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of incorporating fresh crucifer residue on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla inoculum density, root knot disease development and celery yield. The ethanol extracts of cabbage, cauliflower, radish and Chinese cabbage leaves after harvest was applied to moist soil with high nematode population and covered with low density polyethylene sheets (50 micron thickness). After 15 days the sheet was removed and celery seedlings were planted. Observation on shoot length, root length, green leaf and stalk yield and nematode population were recorded. Biofumigation with sulphur containing cruciferous vegetable waste at the rate of 1kg/5 kg soil was found to reduce significantly the root knot nematode, M.hapla infecting celery and enhance plant growth and yield. Among the various sources evaluated radish leaf residue was the most effective resulting in 60.6 % reduction in nematode population in soil and 41.9% increase in celery green leaf and stalk yield compared to untreated control. © JBiopest.
Kasirajan S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Ngouajio M.,Michigan State University
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2012
The use of plastic mulch in agriculture has increased dramatically in the last 10 years throughout the world. This increase is due to benefits such as increase in soil temperature, reduced weed pressure, moisture conservation, reduction of certain insect pests, higher crop yields, and more efficient use of soil nutrients. However, disposing of used plastic films, which cause pollution, has led to development of photodegradable and biodegradable mulches. Here we review the use of plastic mulches in agriculture, with special reference to biodegradable mulches. Major topics discussed are (1) history of plastic mulch and impact on crop yield and pest management, (2) limitations of polyethylene mulches and potential alternatives, (3) biodegradable and photodegradable plastic mulches, (4) field performance of biodegradable mulches, and (5) use of biodegradable plastic mulches in organic production. We found that (1) despite multiple benefits, removal and disposal of conventional polyethylene mulches remains a major agronomic, economic, and environmental constraint; (2) early use of photodegradable plastic mulch during the 1970s and 1980s, wrongly named biodegradable mulch films, discouraged adoption of new biodegradable mulch films because they were too expensive and their breakdown was unpredictable; (3) biodegradable plastic films are converted through microbial activity in the soil to carbon dioxide, water, and natural substances; (4) polymers such as poly(lactic acid), poly(butylene adipatecoterephthalate), poly(?-caprolactone), and starch-based polymer blends or copolymers can degrade when exposed to bioactive environments such as soil and compost; (5)with truly biodegradable materials obtained from petroleum and natural resources, opportunity for using biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulch films has become more viable; and (6) the source of polymer and additives may limit use of some biodegradable mulches in organic production. More knowledge is needed on the effect of biodegradable mulches on crop growth, microclimate modifications, soil biota, soil fertility, and yields. © The Author(s) 2012.
Seenivasan N.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011
The talc-based formulations of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and egg parasitic fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, were evaluated as seed treatment, soil application and combination of both for the management of M. graminicola in fields of rice grown under system of rice intensification. Both the bioformulations significantly reduced the root invasion and soil populations of M. graminicola but P. fluorescens was most effective when applied as seed cum soil application and seed treatment alone. Effect of these treatments was comparable with the standard chemical carbofuran application. The introduced P. fluorescens survived significantly in rice roots when applied as seed cum soil application and seed application alone than as soil application. There was significant increase in phenol, peroxidase and chitinase accumulation in plants treated with P. fluorescens. Application of bioagents had positive influence on growth parameters such as plant height, root length, shoot weight, root weight and number of tillers per hill. Application of P. fluorescens as seed cum soil treatment resulted in higher grain yield, which was 20.6%-26.9% increase over control followed by P. fluorescens as seed treatment alone that increased grain yield of rice by 10.7%-11.2% than control. However, economic returns per investment was higher when P. fluorescens was applied as seed treatment alone (1:8.8-1:12.0 incremental cost benefit ratio) followed by the P. fluorescens as seed cum soil treatment (1:6.2-1:9.7 incremental cost benefit ratio). © 2011 Taylor & Francis.