Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo, Japan

Tamagawa University is a Japanese university in Machida, Tokyo, Japan. The university consists of 16 departments in seven faculties , as well as seven programs leading to a master’s degree and four programs leading to a doctorate degree. Part of the Tamagawa Gakuen campus, the school was founded by influential Japanese education reformer Kuniyoshi Obara. Wikipedia.

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Haruno M.,Institute Computational Neuroscience Laboratories | Haruno M.,Tamagawa University | Frith C.D.,University College London | Frith C.D.,University of Aarhus
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2010

'Social value orientation' characterizes individual differences in anchoring attitudes toward the division of resources. Here, by contrasting people with prosocial and individualistic orientations using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that degree of inequity aversion in prosocials is predictable from amygdala activity and unaffected by cognitive load. This result suggests that automatic emotional processing in the amygdala lies at the core of prosocial value orientation. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Izuma K.,California Institute of Technology | Izuma K.,Tamagawa University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, which represents the discrepancy between one's own and another person's opinion, or, more broadly, between currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. Research on persuasion has revealed that people's susceptibility to persuasive messages is related to activation in a nearby but more anterior part of the medial frontal cortex. Future progress in this field will depend upon the ability of researchers to dissociate underlying motivations for attitude change in different paradigms, and to utilize neuroimaging methods to advance social psychological theories of social influence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Smith Y.,Emory University | Surmeier D.J.,Northwestern University | Redgrave P.,University of Sheffield | Kimura M.,Tamagawa University
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Although the existence of prominent connections between the intralaminar thalamic nuclei and the basal ganglia has long been established, the limited knowledge of the functional relevance of this network has considerably hampered progress in our understanding of the neural mechanisms by which the thalamostriatal system integrates and regulates the basal ganglia circuitry. In this brief commentary, we will address this gap of knowledge through a discussion of the key points of a symposium entitled "Thalamic Contributions to Basal Ganglia-Related Behavioral Switching and Reinforcement" that will be presented at the 2011 Society for Neuroscience meeting. Recent anatomical and physiological data that support the role of the thalamostriatal system in action selection, attentional shifting, and reinforcement will be discussed.Wewill also address the possibility that degeneration of the thalamostriatal system could underlie some of the deficits in redirection of attention in response to salient stimuli seen in Parkinson's disease. © 2011 the authors.


Patent
IHI Corporation and Tamagawa University | Date: 2010-11-03

The present invention relates to a hydrogen supply device which supplies hydrogen by selectively permitting permeation of hydrogen contained in a hydrogen containing gas (G1). This device includes: a first metal layer (2) which dissociates hydrogen molecules into hydrogen ions by a catalytic reaction and has hydrogen permeability; a second metal layer (3) which creates hydrogen molecules by bonding hydrogen ions to each other using electrons and has hydrogen permeability; a hydrogen permeation layer (1) which is interposed between the first metal layer (2) and the second metal layer (3) and permits permeation of the hydrogen ions from the first metal layer (2) to the second metal layer (3) by the application of a voltage; and a voltage application (7) for applying the voltage to the hydrogen permeation layer (1) by setting the first metal layer (2) as an anode and setting the second metal layer (3) as a cathode. According to this device, even when the concentration of hydrogen is low, it is possible to dissociate hydrogen from a hydrogen containing gas, and to suppress noise during the operation of the device.


Pan X.,Tamagawa University | Pan X.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sakagami M.,Tamagawa University
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Categorization is a function of the brain that serves to group together items and events in our environments. Here we review the following important issues related to category representation and generalization: namely, where categories are presented in the brain, and how the brain utilizes categorical membership to generate new information. Accumulated experimental evidence shows that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in category formation and generalization. We propose that prefrontal neurons abstract the commonality beyond individual stimuli, and categorize these based on their common meaning by ignoring their physical properties and learning to represent the boundaries between behaviorally significant categories. We also claim that a subgroup of prefrontal neurons simultaneously receives the category-related information and specific property information (e.g. reward) associated with an exemplar, to form a category-based representation of that property, and propagates it among stimuli of the same category, possibly reflecting a neural basis for category generalization in the PFC. These results suggest that the PFC is involved in representing abstract rules, and generating new information on the basis of previously acquired knowledge. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Takiyama K.,Tamagawa University
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Recent theoretical models suggest that motor learning includes at least two processes: error minimization and memory decay. While learning a novel movement, a motor memory of the movement is gradually formed to minimize the movement error between the desired and actual movements in each training trial, but the memory is slightly forgotten in each trial. The learning effects of error minimization trained with a certain movement are partially available in other non-trained movements, and this transfer of the learning effect can be reproduced by certain theoretical frameworks. Although most theoretical frameworks have assumed that a motor memory trained with a certain movement decays at the same speed during performing the trained movement as non-trained movements, a recent study reported that the motor memory decays faster during performing the trained movement than non-trained movements, i.e., the decay rate of motor memory is movement or context dependent. Although motor learning has been successfully modeled based on an optimization framework, e.g., movement error minimization, the type of optimization that can lead to context-dependent memory decay is unclear. Thus, context-dependent memory decay raises the question of what is optimized in motor learning. To reproduce context-dependent memory decay, I extend a motor primitive framework. Specifically, I introduce motor effort optimization into the framework because some previous studies have reported the existence of effort optimization in motor learning processes and no conventional motor primitive model has yet considered the optimization. Here, I analytically and numerically revealed that context-dependent decay is a result of motor effort optimization. My analyses suggest that context-dependent decay is not merely memory decay but is evidence of motor effort optimization in motor learning. © 2015 Takiyama.


Shirasaki H.,Tamagawa University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

In this paper, we show the 2D and 3D scatterometry simulation software which has spectroscopy calculation and optimization algorithm systems. The scatterometry analysis for 3D-structure requires a lot of memory and along calculation time. The calculation is sped up by parallel computing using the GPU (Graphics Processor Unit). Here, we use the programming language CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) and CULA (CULApack) for the NVIDIA GPU. Then, we use the real-coded GA (RCGA) to increase the population, to make a more sensitive solution and to get better fitting groove figures. The scatterometry characteristic is examined by choosing the n-th power cosine type period groove. © 2013 SPIE.


The idea of planned production of vegetables using a factory has been suggested for many years as a technology extending the application of greenhouse horticulture. However, it has not been a very long time since the world's first systematized vegetable factory appeared for commercial production. Development of vegetable factories in Japan was started in the second half of the 1970s, and subsequently many companies like manufacturers of electrical appliances, food producers, and electric power companies and so on began technology development work in this field. Currently, Japan is one of the most active countries in the world in technology development in this field. If the goals of vegetable production in factory are fully planned production and cultivation management, then in terms of lighting, a fully controlled system using artificial light only is superior to a sunlight/artificial light combined system. However, one issue with artificial lighting is the running cost, especially the cost of electricity for lighting and air conditioning. Estimates based on high pressure sodium lamps and fluorescent light indicate that lighting accounts for approximately 40% of the total running cost for vegetable production. Therefore, it is essential that electricity costs for lighting and air conditioning should be lowered in order to develop a practical vegetable factory that uses fully controlled artificial light. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are featured with a narrow light-emitting spectrum, enabling them to focus light on plants with just the required wavelength of light. In addition, it is possible to completely reduce thermal infrared radiation. This means the light source can be positioned very close to plants. Furthermore, the lack of infrared radiation is an important cost advantage in terms of managing the temperature of a closed vegetable cultivation system. This article will overview the history and technology development of the light-controlled plant cultivation system in Japan, especially comparing the performance and characteristics of lighting devices for vegetable cultivation.


A configuration method of an optical signal, an encryption device, and an encryption system makes it possible for a legitimate communicating party to ensure information-theoretic security against a known plain text attack and to communicate long-distance. By adding a transmission information data sequence randomization device to the Yuen encrypted communications device according to the present information, which divides transmission information data into blocks, appends sequence numbers thereto, randomly switches the sequence of the blocks with a digitized signal of output of an electrical noise generator, and inputs same into a transmission data generator of a conventional Yuen encrypted optical transmitter, the relation between a known transmission information data sequence (plain text) and an optical signal which is outputted from the transmitter is randomized, allowing forcibly making even a circumstance wherein a known-plain text attack would be possible into a cipher-text-only attack, realizing information-theoretic security against a known-plain text attack.


Provided are a configuration method of an optical signal, an encryption device, and an encryption system whereby it is possible for a legitimate communicating party to ensure information-theoretic security against a known plain text attack as well as to communicate long-distance. By adding a transmission information data sequence randomization device to the Yuen encrypted communications device according to the present information, which divides transmission information data into blocks, appends sequence numbers thereto, randomly switches the sequence of the blocks with a digitized signal of output of an electrical noise generator, and inputs same into a transmission data generator of a conventional Yuen encrypted optical transmitter, the relation between a known transmission information data sequence (plain text) and an optical signal which is outputted from the transmitter is randomized, allowing forcibly making even a circumstance wherein a known-plain text attack would be possible into a cipher-text-only attack, realizing information-theoretic security against a known-plain text attack.

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