Tama Zoological Park

Tokyo, Japan

Tama Zoological Park

Tokyo, Japan

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Kinoshita K.,Kobe University | Inada S.,Kobe University | Seki K.,Kobe Municipal Oji Zoo | Sasaki A.,Tama Zoological Park | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1) estradiol-17β, (2) progesterone and (3) cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1) first housed with a male in all year round and then (2) in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days). The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 μg/g) were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 μg/g) (P<0.05). Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 μg/g) were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 μg/g) (P<0.05). Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success. The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding success. © 2011 Kinoshita et al.


Kaneko M.,Tama Zoological Park | Mase M.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Two diseased flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) with nodular lesions (pock) characteristic of poxvirus infection were found in a zoo in Japan. Avian poxvirus was isolated from the lesions (upper beak) of the affected birds and was genetically characterized by polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the virus isolated from these flamingos was genetically close to those isolated from pigeons, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Ueda S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ueda S.,Kyoto University | Kumagai G.,Tama Zoological Park | Otaki Y.,Yokohama Zoological Gardens | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. Atype faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication. ©2014 Ueda et al.


Adachi I.,Gifu University | Kusuda S.,Gifu University | Kawai H.,Gifu University | Ohazama M.,Himeji Central Park | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

The purposes of the present study were to establish a noninvasive monitoring assay of fecal progestagen measurement to detect pregnancy and to identify the components of fecal progestagens in early, middle and late pregnancy in cheetahs. Feces were collected from 7 female cheetahs and analyzed from 30 days before the last copulation to parturition in 9 pregnancies. Blood was collected from one cheetah. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The profiles of the fecal progestagen concentrations were similar to the serum progesterone profile. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations remained at the baseline until copulation. In the mean fecal progestagen profile during pregnancy (92.8 ± 0.4 days; from the last copulation to parturition), the concentrations increased 3-4 days after the last copulation and remained high until parturition. To investigate changes in the components of progestagen metabolites in the tripartite periods of gestation, fecal progestagens were analyzed by HPLC-EIA. Marked immunoreactive peaks consistent with 5α-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one and 5α-pregnan-3,20-dione and small peaks consistent with 5β-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one were detected. There were no distinct difference in the components of progestagens among the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The hormone assay, as an indicator of fecal 5α-reduced pregnanes, is useful for detecting pregnancy and monitoring pregnant luteal activity in cheetahs. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Ueda S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kumagai G.,Tama Zoological Park | Otaki Y.,Yokohama Zoological Gardens | Yamaguchi S.,Yokohama Zoological Gardens | Kohshima S.,Kyoto University
PloS one | Year: 2014

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.


PubMed | Tama Zoological Park, Yokohama Zoological Gardens, Kyoto University and Tokyo Institute of Technology
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.


PubMed | Kobe Municipal Oji Zoo, Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoological Gardens, Tama Zoological Park, Zoorasia Yokohama Zoological Gardens and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical primatology | Year: 2016

Under the environment of pregnancy, the placenta assumes an important steroidogenic role in the maintenance of pregnancy.Urinary placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), estrone-3-glucuronide (EThe gestation period of the stillbirth (223days) was shorter than that of the live births (239-254days). In females who gave a live birth, average PLAP and EThis is the first study reporting a change in urinary PLAP, E


Yamamoto Y.,Gifu University | Yamamoto Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Yuto N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Yamamoto T.,Gifu University | And 13 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2012

The ovary of female elephants has multiple corpora lutea (CL) during the estrous cycle and gestation. The previous reports clearly demonstrated that inhibin was secreted from lutein cells as well as granulosa cells of antral follicles in cyclic Asian elephants. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibin secretion during the pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Two African elephants and two Asian elephants were subjected to this study. Circulating levels of immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Four pregnant periods of an African elephant and three pregnant periods of an Asian elephant were analyzed in this study. Circulating levels of ir-inhibin started to increase at 1 or 2 week before the ovulation and reached the peak level 3 or 4 weeks earlier than progesterone during the estrous cycle in both African and Asian elephants. After last luteal phase, the serum levels of ir-inhibin remained low throughout pregnancy in both an African and an Asian elephant. The mean levels of ir-inhibin during the pregnancy were lower than the luteal phase in the estrous cycle despite high progesterone levels were maintained throughout the pregnancy. These results strongly suggest that CL secrete a large amount of progesterone but not inhibin during the pregnancy in elephants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Yamamoto Y.,Gifu University | Yamamoto Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Yamamoto T.,Gifu University | Yamamoto T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2010

Reproduction of captive elephants in zoos has shown a low fecundity and requires improvement. One of the reasons for low fecundity is ovarian dysfunction in many female elephants. To investigate whether prolactin has a correlation with ovarian function in female elephants, the serum concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and estradiol-17β in four African female elephants (one cycling female and three non-cycling female elephants) were measured. Cyclic patterns of prolactin and estradiol-17β were observed in the cycling female elephant, which tended to be high during the follicular phase and low during the luteal phase. On the other hand, a cyclic pattern of prolactin was not observed in the non-cycling female elephants. One of the three non-cycling females (Mako) had developed breasts and showed significantly higher average levels of prolactin than the other female elephants. These results suggested that high concentrations of circulating estradiol-17β during the follicular phase stimulated prolactin secretion. They also suggested that hyperprolactinemia in Mako was one of the causes of the developed mammary glands and ovarian dysfunction.


Hanazuka Y.,Chuo University | Shimahara N.,Tama Zoological Park | Tokuda Y.,Tama Zoological Park | Midorikawa A.,Chuo University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Many social animals can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar faces. Orangutans, however, lead a semisolitary life and spend much of the day alone. As such, they may be less adept at recognizing conspecifics and are a good model for determining how social structure influences the evolution of social cognition such as facial recognition. The present study is the first report of whether orangutans can distinguish among individual faces. We adopted a preferential looking method and found that orangutans used facial discrimination to identify known conspecifics. This suggests that frequent and intense social interaction is not necessary for facial discrimination, although our findings were limited by the small number of stimuli and the unequal numbers of male and female orangutans depicted in the stimuli. © 2013 Hanazuka.

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