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Narva-Joesuu, Estonia

Tallinn University ) is the third-largest institution of higher education in Estonia. It is in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. Despite the similar names, Tallinn University and Tallinn University of Technology are separate institutions. Wikipedia.

Gugger P.F.,University of Minnesota | Sugita S.,Tallinn University
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010

To understand how temperate forests might respond to future episodes of global warming, it is important to study the effects of large-scale climate change brought about by rapid postglacial warming. Compilations of fossil evidence have provided the best evidence of past plant range shifts, especially in eastern North America and Europe, and provide a context for interpreting new molecular datasets from modern forests. In western North America, however, such reviews have lagged even for common, widespread taxa. Here, we synthesize fossil evidence for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from nearly 550 fossil pollen, sedimentary macrofossil, and packrat midden macrofossil sites to develop hypotheses about the species' late Quaternary history that can be tested with molecular phylogeographic studies. For both the coastal and interior varieties, we identified alternative hypotheses on the number of glacial populations and postglacial migration patterns that can be characterized as single-population versus multiple-population hypotheses. Coastal Douglas-fir may have been subdivided into two populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and colonized British Columbia from populations in Washington and Oregon. Interior Douglas-fir could have been subdivided along major topographic barriers into at least three LGM populations and colonized British Columbia and Alberta from populations in northwest Wyoming and/or northeast Utah. For both varieties, we calculated migration rates lower than previous studies, which could have been as high as 100-220 m/yr if Douglas-fir reached its modern distribution 9000 cal yr BP, or as low as 50 m/yr if it reached its modern range at present. The elevational range of populations in California and the southern Rockies shifted upslope by 700-1000 m. If there were multiple LGM populations, these elevational shifts suggest that those populations did not contribute to the colonization of Canada. Our findings emphasize the possibility of low-density northern LGM populations and that populations within species react individualistically in response to large-scale climate change. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ibrus I.,Tallinn University
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2013

This empirically grounded article focuses on the standardisation of the mobile accessible Web by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It demonstrates what were the different points of departure for the institutions of different kinds (telecommunications operators, online service providers, software developers, content providers, etc.) that got engaged in this standardisation process. It discusses how the dialogical relationships among these stakeholders shaped the nascent medium. It demonstrates how these dynamics conditioned on different 'levels' the processes of both the convergence and the divergence between the desktop and mobile webs and shows how these conflicting processes of convergence and divergence were pursued by different industry groupings - 'infrastructure enablers' and content providers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Varnik P.,39 Health | Varnik P.,Tallinn University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2012

Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male-female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0) and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1). Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15-29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45-59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15-29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Small lakes and their sediments are widely used for palaeolimnological reconstructions. Often only one core from the deepest part of the lake is used for reconstructing the lake catchment development, water-level changes and climate. To interpret palaeoinformation correctly, it is necessary to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics and the essence of lake basin evolution (topography, sedimentation zones, etc.) during the selected time period. The current study focuses on reconstructing the development of Lake Väike Juusa (southern Estonia) during the Holocene with the help of 3D digital elevation models compiled for the palaeolake stages at 9000 BP, 8000 BP, 4000 BP, 2000 BP and the present. The results suggest that we have to consider lake stages as completely different lakes with different sedimentation patterns - the hypsocraphic curve of Lake Väike Juusa was convex at the beginning of the Holocene and is concave nowadays. The proportion of the accumulation areas varied from 6% to 60% at the beginning of the Holocene and is around 30% nowadays. In order to understand lake basin development and waterlevel changes, the sampling sites should be selected close to the transitional zone and more than one core from a lake is needed. Commonly the sites located spatially rather close to each other have significantly different sedimentation patterns. Threedimensional digital elevation models of palaeolake basins are useful tools for visualizing data and for hypothesizing about possible effects of lake-level fluctuations on the lake and its sedimentation regime. Source

Perez C.,Cambridge and Sussex Universities | Perez C.,Tallinn University
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions | Year: 2013

The current crisis is not a "black swan" but a recurrent historical event midway along the successive technological revolutions. In contrast with other crises, the ones that follow the major technology bubbles install a vast innovation potential that can be unleashed with adequate government policies. The so-called golden ages in the past two centuries (the Victorian boom, the Belle Époque, the post war golden age) have followed post-bubble recessions. After governments save the banks and jump-start the economy, they need to regulate and reorient finance toward the real economy while fostering synergistic growth in agreed directions. The article holds that the possibility is there for unleashing a golden age-national and global-by tilting the playing field in favor of "green growth". The question is whether the conditions for government to become proactive again are as favorable as after WWII. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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