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Silhar P.,Scripps Research Institute | Capkova K.,Scripps Research Institute | Salzameda N.T.,Scripps Research Institute | Barbieri J.T.,Medical College of Wisconsin | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) A new mechanistic class of BoNT/A zinc metalloprotease inhibitors, from Echinacea, exemplified by the natural product d-chicoric acid (I1) is disclosed. A detailed evaluation of chicoric acid's mechanism of inhibition reveals that the inhibitor binds to an exosite, displays noncompetitive partial inhibition, and is synergistic with a competitive active site inhibitor when used in combination. Other components found in Echinacea, I3 and I4, were also inhibitors of the protease. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Iwata H.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Imamura S.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Hori A.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Hixon M.S.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis leads to a lack of oxygen and nutrients in the tumor and therefore has become a standards of care for many solid tumor therapies. Dual inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) protein kinase activities is a popular strategy for targeting tumor angiogenesis. We discovered that TAK-593, a novel imidazo[1,2- b]pyridazine derivative, potently inhibits tyrosine kinases from the VEGFR and PDGFR families. TAK-593 was highly selective for these families, with an IC50 >1 μMwhen tested against more than 200 protein and lipid kinases. TAK-593 displayed competitive inhibition versus ATP. In addition, TAK-593 inhibited VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ in a time-dependent manner, classifying it as a type II kinase inhibitor. Analysis of enzyme-inhibitor preincubation experiments revealed that the binding of TAK-593 to VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ occurs via a two-step slow binding mechanism. Dissociation of TAK-593 from VEGFR2 was extremely slow (t1/2>17 h), and the affinity of TAK-593 at equilibrium (Ki*) was less than 25 pM. Ligand displacement analysis with a fluorescent tracer confirmed the slow dissociation of TAK-593. The dissociation rate constants were in good agreement between the activity and ligand displacement data, and both analyses supported slow dissociation of TAK-593. The long residence time of TAK-593 may achieve an extended pharmacodynamic effect on VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ kinases in vivo that differs substantially from its observed pharmacokinetic profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Patent
Takeda San Diego Inc. and Takeda Pharmaceutical | Date: 2010-12-01

Compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, kits and methods are provided for use with glucokinase that comprise a compound selected from the group consisting of: wherein the variables are as defined herein.


Zalevsky J.,Xencor | Zalevsky J.,The Jackson Laboratory | Chamberlain A.K.,Xencor | Horton H.M.,Xencor | And 6 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Improved affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is known to extend antibody half-life in vivo. However, this has never been linked with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. We tested whether antibodies with half-lives extended up to fivefold in human (h)FcRn transgenic mice and threefold in cynomolgus monkeys retain efficacy at longer dosing intervals. We observed that prolonged exposure due to FcRn-mediated enhancement of half-life improved antitumor activity of Fc-engineered antibodies in an hFcRn/Rag1 / mouse model. This bridges the demand for dosing convenience with the clinical necessity of maintaining efficacy.


Denery J.R.,Scripps Research Institute | Nunes A.A.K.,Scripps Research Institute | Hixon M.S.,Scripps Research Institute | Hixon M.S.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Development of robust, sensitive, and reproducible diagnostic tests for understanding the epidemiology of neglected tropical diseases is an integral aspect of the success of worldwide control and elimination programs. In the treatment of onchocerciasis, clinical diagnostics that can function in an elimination scenario are non-existent and desperately needed. Due to its sensitivity and quantitative reproducibility, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics is a powerful approach to this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings: Analysis of an African sample set comprised of 73 serum and plasma samples revealed a set of 14 biomarkers that showed excellent discrimination between Onchocerca volvulus-positive and negative individuals by multivariate statistical analysis. Application of this biomarker set to an additional sample set from onchocerciasis endemic areas where long-term ivermectin treatment has been successful revealed that the biomarker set may also distinguish individuals with worms of compromised viability from those with active infection. Machine learning extended the utility of the biomarker set from a complex multivariate analysis to a binary format applicable for adaptation to a fieldbased diagnostic, validating the use of complex data mining tools applied to infectious disease biomarker discovery and diagnostic development. Conclusions/Significance: An LC-MS metabolomics-based diagnostic has the potential to monitor the progression of onchocerciasis in both endemic and non-endemic geographic areas, as well as provide an essential tool to multinational programs in the ongoing fight against this neglected tropical disease. Ultimately this technology can be expanded for the diagnosis of other filarial and/or neglected tropical diseases. © 2010 Denery et al.


Bremer P.T.,Scripps Research Institute | Hixon M.S.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Janda K.D.,Scripps Research Institute
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Although botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is known for its use in cosmetics, it causes a potentially fatal illness, botulism, and can be used as a bioterror weapon. Many compounds have been developed that inhibit the BoNTA zinc-metalloprotease light chain (LC), however, none of these inhibitors have advanced to clinical trials. In this study, a fragment-based approach was implemented to develop novel covalent inhibitors of BoNT/A LC. First, electrophilic fragments were screened against BoNT/A LC, and benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives were found to be active. In kinetic studies, BQ compounds acted as irreversible inhibitors that presumably covalently modify cysteine 165 of BoNT/A LC. Although most BQ derivatives were highly reactive toward glutathione in vitro, a few compounds such as natural product naphthazarin displayed low thiol reactivity and good BoNT/A inhibition. In order to increase the potency of the BQ fragment, computational docking studies were employed to elucidate a scaffold that could bind to sites adjacent to Cys165 while positioning a BQ fragment at Cys165 for covalent modification; 2-amino-N-arylacetamides met these criteria and when linked to BQ displayed at least a 20-fold increase in activity to low μM IC50 values. Unlike BQ alone, the linked-BQ compounds demonstrated only weak irreversible inhibition and therefore acted mainly as non-covalent inhibitors. Further kinetic studies revealed a mutual exclusivity of BQ covalent inactivation and competitive inhibitor binding to sites adjacent to Cys165, refuting the viability of the current strategy for developing more potent irreversible BoNT/A inhibitors. The highlights of this study include the discovery of BQ compounds as irreversible BoNT/A inhibitors and the rational design of low μM IC50 competitive inhibitors that depend on the BQ moiety for activity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zeng L.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Xu R.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Zhang Y.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Kassel D.B.,Takeda San Diego Inc.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

A new analytical two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry system (2D SFC/SFC/MS) has been designed and implemented to enhance the efficiency and quality of analytical support in drug discovery. The system consists of a Berger analytical SFC pump and a modifier pump, a Waters ZQ 2000 mass spectrometer, a set of switching valves, and a custom software program. The system integrates achiral and chiral separations into a single run to perform enantiomeric analysis and separation of a racemic compound from a complex mixture without prior clean up. The achiral chromatography in the first dimension separates the racemate from all other impurities, such as un-reacted starting materials and by-products. Mass-triggered fractionation is used to selectively fractionate the targeted racemic compound based on its molecular weight. The purified racemate from the achiral chromatography in the first dimension is then transferred to the chiral column in the second dimension to conduct the enantiomeric separation and analysis. A control software program, we coined SFC2D, was developed and integrated with MassLynx to retrieve acquisition status, current sample information, and real time mass spectrometric data as they are acquired. The SFC2D program also monitors the target ion signal to carry out mass-triggered fractionation by switching the valve to fractionate the desired peak. The 2D SFC/SFC/MS system uses one CO2 pump and one modifier pump for both first and second dimension chromatographic separations using either gradient or isocratic elution. Similarly, a preparative 2D SFC/SFC/MS system has been constructed by modifying an existing Waters preparative LC/MS system. All components except the back pressure regulator are from the original LC/MS system. Applications of the 2D SFC/SFC/MS methods to the separation and the analysis of racemic pharmaceutical samples in complex mixtures demonstrated that an achiral separation (in first dimension) and a chiral separation (in second dimension) can be successfully combined into a single, streamlined process both in analytical and preparative scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lim K.B.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Ozbal C.C.,BIOCIUS Life Sciences Inc. | Kassel D.B.,Takeda San Diego Inc.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2010

A high-throughput online solid-phase extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE/MS/MS) system has been developed to support rapid evaluation of drug discovery compounds for possible drug-drug interaction (DDI). Each compound is evaluated for its DDI potential by incubating over a range of 8 test concentrations and against a panel of 6 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Previously, a postassay pooling and a 2-min gradient LC/MS/MS method had been reported to increase sample throughput, allowing for a 96-well plate of samples to be analyzed in under 4 h. The development of a new online SPE/MS/MS system has reduced the analysis time to less than 15 min per 96-well plate, translating to a 15-fold time savings compared to the 2-min LC/MS/MS method. Sampling precision without internal standard correction ranged from 3.1% to 5.6% relative standard deviation, and the carryover was determined to be between 1.0% and 4.1%. One hundred twenty in-house compounds were assayed and pooled for analyses using both the online SPE/MS/ MS and LC/MS/MS, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.13, when comparing the IC 50 results obtained from the 2 approaches for each of the CYP enzymes. © 2010 Society for Biomolecular Sciences.


Xu R.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Manuel M.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Cramlett J.,Takeda San Diego Inc. | Kassel D.B.,Takeda San Diego Inc.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

One of the most commonly performed in vitro ADME assays during the lead generation and lead optimization stage of drug discovery is metabolic stability evaluation. Metabolic stability is typically assessed in liver microsomes, which contain Phase I metabolizing enzymes, mainly cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). The amount of parent drug metabolized by these CYPs is determined by LC/MS/MS. The metabolic stability data are typically used to rank order compounds for in vivo evaluation. We describe a streamlined and intelligent workflow for the metabolic stability assay that permits high throughput analyses to be carried out while maintaining the standard of high quality. This is accomplished in the following ways: a novel post-incubation pooling strategy based on c Log D3.0 values, coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS), enables sample analysis times to be reduced significantly while ensuring adequate chromatographic separation of compounds within a group, so as to reduce the likelihood of compound interference. Assay quality and fast turnaround of data reports is ensured by performing automated real-time intelligent re-analysis of discrete samples for compounds that do not pass user-definable criteria during the pooling analysis. Intelligent, user-independent data acquisition and data evaluation are accomplished via a custom visual basic program that ties together every step in the workflow, including cassette compound selection, compound incubation, compound optimization, sample analysis and re-analysis (when appropriate), data processing, data quality evaluation, and database upload. The workflow greatly reduces labor and improves data turnaround time while maintaining high data quality. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Patent
Takeda San Diego Inc. | Date: 2011-07-18

Compounds are provided for use with hexokinases that comprise: wherein the variables are as defined herein. Also provided are pharmaceutical compositions, kits and articles of manufacture comprising such compounds; methods and intermediates useful for making the compounds; and methods of using said compounds.

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