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Omichi M.,Osaka University | Marui H.,Osaka University | Takano K.,Osaka University | Tsukuda S.,Tohoku University | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

A single particle nanofabrication technique was successfully applied to the fabrication of homogeneous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) 1D nanogels over a large area, using N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm) as a cross-linker. The PNIPAAm 1D nanogels with high aspect ratio over 130 were formed uniformly on the substrate, and the mechanical strength and the length of the 1D nanogels can be easily controlled by adjusting the MBAAm content. The 1D nanogels were transformed from the non-aggregated to aggregated forms over a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of approximately 32 °C in water. Precise trace of the temperature induced change in the size of the 1D nanogel was well interpreted by the coil-to-globule transition of PNIPAAm, which was clearly visualized in the present study. This is the first report of uniform shape change for a 1D nanogel by external stimulus over a large area. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Awual M.R.,Kumamoto University | Awual M.R.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Jyo A.,Kumamoto University | Ihara T.,Kumamoto University | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

This study was investigated for the trace phosphate removal at high feed flow rate by ligand exchange fibrous adsorbent. The zirconium(IV) loaded bifunctional fibers containing both phosphonate and sulfonate were used as a highly selective ligand exchange adsorbent for trace phosphate removal from water. The precursory fiber of the bifunctional fibers was co-grafted by polymerization of chloromethylstyrene and styrene onto polyethylene coated polypropylene fiber and then bifunctional fibers were prepared by Arbusov reaction followed by phosphorylation and sulfonation. Phosphate adsorption experimental work was carried out in column approach. Phosphate adsorption increased with decreasing the pH of feed solutions. An increase in the feeds flow rate brings a decrease in both breakthrough capacity and total adsorption. The effect of competing anions on phosphate adsorption systems was investigated. The experimental findings reveal that the phosphate adsorption was not affected in the presence of competing anions such as chloride and sulfate despite the enhancement of the breakthrough points and total adsorption. Due to high selectivity to phosphate species, low concentration level of phosphate (0.22mg/L) was removed at high feed flow rate of 450h -1 in space velocity. The adsorbed phosphate on the Zr(IV) loaded fibrous column was quantitatively eluted with 0.1M NaOH solution and then the column was regenerated by 0.5M H 2SO 4 for the next adsorption operation. During many adsorption-elution-regeneration cycles, no measurable Zr(IV) was found in the column effluents. Therefore, the Zr(IV) loaded bifunctional fibrous adsorbent is to be an effective means to treat wastewater to prevent eutrophication in the receiving water bodies for long time without any deterioration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ohkubo T.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute | Ishii Y.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2015

A compact focused gaseous ion beam system has been developed to form proton microbeams of a few hundreds of keV with a penetration depth of micrometer range in 3-dimensional proton beam writing. Proton microbeams with kinetic energies of 100-140 keV were experimentally formed on the same point at a constant ratio of the kinetic energy of the object side to that of the image side. The experimental results indicate that the beam diameters were measured to be almost constant at approximately 6 μm at the same point with the kinetic energy range. These characteristics of the system were experimentally and numerically demonstrated to be maintained as long as the ratio was constant. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source


Koshimizu M.,Tohoku University | Kurashima S.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute | Taguchi M.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Iwamatsu K.,University of Tokyo | And 2 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2015

We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5-2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF2 at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source


Kada W.,Gunma University | Satoh T.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute | Yokoyama A.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute | Koka M.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute | Kamiya T.,Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2014

Confocal optics for ion luminescence (IL) was developed for the precise analysis of the chemical composition of microscopic targets with an external proton microbeam probe. Anti-reflection-coated confocal micro-lens optics with an effective focus area of approximately 800 × 800 μm was installed on the microbeam line of a single-ended accelerator. Chromatic aberrations of the confocal optics were examined at wavelengths of 300-900 nm. An electrically-cooled back-thinned charge coupled device spectrometer with a wavelength resolution of 0.5 nm was used for the microscopic spectroscopy and IL imaging of microscopic mineral targets. Simultaneous microscopic IL and micro-PIXE analysis were performed using an external 3 MeV H+ microbeam with a current of less than 100 pA. A spectral resolution of 3 nm was achieved for a single IL peak which corresponded to Cr3+ impurities in a single-crystal of aluminum oxide. The use of IL spectroscopy and imaging for aerosol targets revealed microscopic distributions of the chemical and elemental composition in the atmosphere. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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