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Deng Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Yang M.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Xu F.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zhang Q.,Fudan University | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Lack of pharmacological strategies in clinics restricts the patient prognosis with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotection of combined salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against myocardial I/R injury and further investigate the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by coronary artery ligation for Wistar male rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury was induced on H9c2 cells. Firstly, the best ratio between SalB and Rg1was set as 2:5 based on their effects on heart function detected by hemodynamic measurement. Then SalB-Rg1 (2:5) was found to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential and resist apoptosis and necrosis in H9c2 cell with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Companying with same dose of SalB or Rg1 only, SalBRg1 showed more significant effects on down-regulation of myocardial infarct size, maintenance of myocardium structure, improvement on cardiac function, decrease of cytokine secretion including TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and sVCAM-1. Finally, the SalB-Rg1 improved the viability of cardiac myocytes other than cardiac fibroblasts in rats with I/R injury using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that SalB-Rg1 was a promising strategy to prevent myocardial I/R injury. Copyright: © 2015 Deng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Atik N.,Osaka University | Atik N.,Padjadjaran University | Kunii M.,Osaka University | Avriyanti E.,Osaka University | And 7 more authors.
Cell Structure and Function | Year: 2014

Protein Kinase D (PKD) 1, 2, and 3 are members of the PKD family. PKDs influence many cellular processes, including cell polarity, structure of the Golgi, polarized transport from the Golgi to the basolateral plasma membrane, and actin polymerization. However, the role of the PKD family in cell polarity has not yet been elucidated in vivo. Here, we show that KO mice displayed similar localization of the apical and basolateral proteins, transport of VSV-G and a GPI-anchored protein, and similar localization of actin filaments. As DKO mice were embryonic lethal, we generated MEFs that lacked all PKD isoforms from the PKD1 and PKD2 double floxed mice using Cre recombinase and PKD3 siRNA. We observed a similar localization of various organelles, a similar time course in the transport of VSV-G and a GPI-anchored protein, and a similar distribution of F-actin in the PKD-null MEFs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the complete deletion of PKDs does not affect the transport of VSV-G or a GPI-anchored protein, and the distribution of F-actin. However, simultaneous deletion of PKD1 and PKD2 affect embryonic development, demonstrating their functional redundancy during development. © 2014 by Japan Society for Cell Biology.

Deng Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Zhang T.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Zhang T.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Teng F.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | And 14 more authors.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association | Year: 2015

Background: The herb pair of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng has widely been used for improving coronary and cerebral circulation in China. However, the exact contribution of the major active components of S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng to cardioprotection is far from clear. In the present study, three representative ingredients, salvianolic acid B (SalB) from S. miltiorrhiza and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) from P. notoginseng, were selected to elucidate the mechanism of the herb pair at the ingredient level. Methods: The purity of SalB, Rg1, and Rb1 was >99%, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acute myocardial infarction was introduced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery near the main pulmonary artery. Cardiac contractility was detected through a Mikro-tipped catheter, and cardiac infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain. Results: The combination of SalB and Rg1, and not the combination of SalB and Rb1, improved heart contractility in rats with myocardial infarction. The different contributions of Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with SalB, to cardioprotection provides further direction to optimize and modernize the herbal medicines containing S. miltiorrhiza and P. notoginseng. Conclusion: The combination of SalB and Rg1 may provide potential protection against myocardial infarction. © 2014.

Avriyanti E.,Osaka University | Atik N.,Osaka University | Atik N.,Padjadjaran University | Kunii M.,Osaka University | And 7 more authors.
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2015

Mammalian protein kinase D (PKD) isoforms have been proposed to regulate diverse biological processes, including the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. To investigate the function of PKD in neuronal polarization in vivo, we generated PKD knockout (KO) mice. Here, we show that the brain, particularly the hippocampus, of both PKD1 KO and PKD2 KO mice was similar to that of control animals. Neurite length in cultured PKD1 KO and PKD2 KO hippocampal neurons was similar to that of wild-type neurons. However, hippocampal neurons deficient in both PKD1 and PKD2 genes showed a reduction in axonal elongation and an increase in the percentage of neurons with multiple axons relative to control neurons. These results reveal that whereas PKD1 and PKD2 are essential for neuronal polarity, there exists a functional redundancy between the two proteins. © 2015 The Authors.

Sato M.,Gunma University | Yoshimura S.,Osaka University | Hirai R.,Gunma University | Goto A.,Osaka University | And 12 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2011

VAMP7 or tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle- associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) has been proposed to regulate apical transport in polarized epithelial cells, axonal transport in neurons and lysosomal exocytosis. To investigate the function of VAMP7 in vivo, we generated VAMP7 knockout mice. Here, we show that VAMP7 knockout mice are indistinguishable from control mice and display a similar localization of apical proteins in the kidney and small intestine and a similar localization of axonal proteins in the nervous system. Neurite outgrowth of cultured mutant hippocampal neurons was reduced in mutant neurons. However, lysosomal exocytosis was not affected in mutant fibroblasts. Our results show that VAMP7 is required in neurons to extend axons to the full extent. However, VAMP7 does not seem to be required for epithelial cell polarity and lysosomal exocytosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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