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Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Lindahl E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sattorov N.,Tajik Agrarian University | Boqvist S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Magnusson U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. © 2015 Lindahl et al.

Wu Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Bake B.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Rasulov H.,Tajik Agrarian University
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2015

Drought, which is one of the most frequently occurring severe hazards with long time scales and covering wide geographical areas, is a natural phenomenon resulting in significant economic losses in agriculture and industry. Drought is caused by an imbalance between the inputs of and the demand for water which is insufficient to meet the demands of human activities and the eco-environment. As a major arid and semi-arid area and an important agricultural region in Northwest China, North Xinjiang (NX) shows great vulnerability to drought. In this paper, the characteristics of inter-annual and seasonal drought were analyzed in terms of drought occurrence and drought coverage, by using the composite index of meteorological drought and the data of daily precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and sunshine duration from 38 meteorological stations during the period 1961–2012. Trend analysis, wavelet analysis and empirical orthogonal function were also applied to investigate change trend, period and regional characteristics, respectively. In NX, annual and seasonal drought occurrence and drought coverage all showed a decreasing trend that was most significant in winter (with rates of −0.26 month/10a and −15.46%, respectively), and drought occurrence in spring and summer were more frequent than that in autumn and winter. Spatially, drought was severe in eastern regions but mild in western regions of NX. Annual and seasonal drought occurrence at 38 meteorological stations displayed decreasing trends and were most significant in “Shihezi-Urumqi-Changji”, which can help to alleviate severe drought hazards for local agricultural production and improve human livelihood. NX can be approximately classified into three sub-regions (severe drought region, moderate drought region and mild drought region), which were calculated from annual drought frequencies. The cross wavelet transform suggested that SOI (Southern Oscillation Index), AOI (Arctic Oscillation Index), AAOI (Antarctic Oscillation Index), PAOI (Pacific/North American Oscillation Index) and NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index) have significant correlation with the variation of drought occurrence in NX. To prevent and mitigate the occurrence of drought disasters in NX, agricultural and government managers should pay more attention to those drought events that occur in spring and summer. © 2015, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer - Verlag GmbH.

Wu Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Bake B.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Wei X.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Li W.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Rasulov H.H.,Tajik Agrarian University
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2015

Based on the daily data from seven meteorological stations of Altay region from 1961 to 2012, the surface humid indexes of months and years were calculated with FAO Panman-Monteith model and then standardized to determine the frequency of extreme wet and dry events. The methods of trend analysis, Mann-Kendall, and Morlet wavelet analysis were applied with software ARCGIS to investigate the variation of extreme wet and dry events in Altay in the period. Results show that extreme dry events present decreasing trend and have a decreasing abrupt change, extreme wet events present increasing trend and have a increasing abrupt change, respectively. The extreme dry and wet events of annual and winter half year and extreme wet events of monsoon summer half year have 27 years return period, whereas, the extreme dry events of monsoon summer haft year have 17 years return period. In regard to spatial distribution, the frequency of extreme dry events is higher in middle region and relatively lower in east region, the extreme wet events is higher in west region and relatively lower in east and middle regions. Relative humidity, daily minimum temperature, daily average temperature and average wind speed are main factors influencing variation of extreme wet and dry events in Altay region. The extreme dry events present negative correlation with PANI, whereas the extreme wet events present positive correlation with PANI.

Wu Y.-F.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Bake B.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Li W.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Wei X.-Q.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

Based on the daily meteorological data of seven stations in Altay region, China, this study investigated the temporal (seasonal, inter-annual and decadal) and spatial variations of drought by using composite index of meteorological drought, as well as trend analysis, M-K abrupt analysis, wavelet analysis and interpolation tools in ArcGIS. The results indicated that the composite index of meteorological drought could reflect the drought condition in Altay region well. Although the frequency and the covered area of both inter-annual and seasonal droughts presented decreasing trends in the recent 52 a, the drought was still serious when considering the annual drought. The frequencies of inter-annual and spring droughts had no abrupt changes, whereas the frequencies of inter-summer, autumn and winter droughts had abrupt changes during the past 52 a. A significant periodic trend was also observed for the frequencies of inter-annual and seasonal droughts. The distribution of frequency and covered area suggested that the conditions of drought were heavily serious in Qinghe County, moderately serious in Altay City, Fuyun County, Buerjin County and Fuhai County, and slightly serious in Habahe County and Jimunai County. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.

Koocheki A.R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Yazdansepas A.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Mahmadyorov U.,Tajik Agrarian University | Mehrvar M.R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Drought is the most restricting factor in agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions. This research was conducted on 19 facultative and winter wheat genotypes grown under normal irrigation (N), early post-anthesis (S1), and late post-anthesis (S2) drought stress conditions. The experiments were conducted at Karadj, Arak, and Jolgehrokh Agricultural Research Stations in Iran, during 2008-11 cropping seasons. Stress reduced grain number per spike, thousand grain weight, grain weight per spike, harvest index, biological weight, and grain yield. Effect of environment, irrigation, and genotype on most of the traits, including grain yield, was significant. Remobilization, efficiency of remobilization, and pre-anthesis photo-assimilate contribution to grain filling increased under drought stress condition. Correlation coefficients between those traits and grain yield were significantly positive under N, S1, and S2 conditions. Based on different drought tolerance indices, the improved line Alvd//Aldan/Ias58*2/3/Gaspard was identified as the most tolerant genotype under anthesis and post-anthesis drought stress conditions. It also had the highest remobilization, efficiency of remobilization, and pre-anthesis photo-assimilate contribution to grain filling under drought stress conditions.

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