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Koocheki A.R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Yazdansepas A.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Mahmadyorov U.,Tajik Agrarian University | Mehrvar M.R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Drought is the most restricting factor in agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions. This research was conducted on 19 facultative and winter wheat genotypes grown under normal irrigation (N), early post-anthesis (S1), and late post-anthesis (S2) drought stress conditions. The experiments were conducted at Karadj, Arak, and Jolgehrokh Agricultural Research Stations in Iran, during 2008-11 cropping seasons. Stress reduced grain number per spike, thousand grain weight, grain weight per spike, harvest index, biological weight, and grain yield. Effect of environment, irrigation, and genotype on most of the traits, including grain yield, was significant. Remobilization, efficiency of remobilization, and pre-anthesis photo-assimilate contribution to grain filling increased under drought stress condition. Correlation coefficients between those traits and grain yield were significantly positive under N, S1, and S2 conditions. Based on different drought tolerance indices, the improved line Alvd//Aldan/Ias58*2/3/Gaspard was identified as the most tolerant genotype under anthesis and post-anthesis drought stress conditions. It also had the highest remobilization, efficiency of remobilization, and pre-anthesis photo-assimilate contribution to grain filling under drought stress conditions.


Wu Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Bake B.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Rasulov H.,Tajik Agrarian University
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2015

Drought, which is one of the most frequently occurring severe hazards with long time scales and covering wide geographical areas, is a natural phenomenon resulting in significant economic losses in agriculture and industry. Drought is caused by an imbalance between the inputs of and the demand for water which is insufficient to meet the demands of human activities and the eco-environment. As a major arid and semi-arid area and an important agricultural region in Northwest China, North Xinjiang (NX) shows great vulnerability to drought. In this paper, the characteristics of inter-annual and seasonal drought were analyzed in terms of drought occurrence and drought coverage, by using the composite index of meteorological drought and the data of daily precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and sunshine duration from 38 meteorological stations during the period 1961–2012. Trend analysis, wavelet analysis and empirical orthogonal function were also applied to investigate change trend, period and regional characteristics, respectively. In NX, annual and seasonal drought occurrence and drought coverage all showed a decreasing trend that was most significant in winter (with rates of −0.26 month/10a and −15.46%, respectively), and drought occurrence in spring and summer were more frequent than that in autumn and winter. Spatially, drought was severe in eastern regions but mild in western regions of NX. Annual and seasonal drought occurrence at 38 meteorological stations displayed decreasing trends and were most significant in “Shihezi-Urumqi-Changji”, which can help to alleviate severe drought hazards for local agricultural production and improve human livelihood. NX can be approximately classified into three sub-regions (severe drought region, moderate drought region and mild drought region), which were calculated from annual drought frequencies. The cross wavelet transform suggested that SOI (Southern Oscillation Index), AOI (Arctic Oscillation Index), AAOI (Antarctic Oscillation Index), PAOI (Pacific/North American Oscillation Index) and NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index) have significant correlation with the variation of drought occurrence in NX. To prevent and mitigate the occurrence of drought disasters in NX, agricultural and government managers should pay more attention to those drought events that occur in spring and summer. © 2015, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer - Verlag GmbH.


Wu Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Bake B.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Wei X.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Li W.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Rasulov H.H.,Tajik Agrarian University
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2015

Based on the daily data from seven meteorological stations of Altay region from 1961 to 2012, the surface humid indexes of months and years were calculated with FAO Panman-Monteith model and then standardized to determine the frequency of extreme wet and dry events. The methods of trend analysis, Mann-Kendall, and Morlet wavelet analysis were applied with software ARCGIS to investigate the variation of extreme wet and dry events in Altay in the period. Results show that extreme dry events present decreasing trend and have a decreasing abrupt change, extreme wet events present increasing trend and have a increasing abrupt change, respectively. The extreme dry and wet events of annual and winter half year and extreme wet events of monsoon summer half year have 27 years return period, whereas, the extreme dry events of monsoon summer haft year have 17 years return period. In regard to spatial distribution, the frequency of extreme dry events is higher in middle region and relatively lower in east region, the extreme wet events is higher in west region and relatively lower in east and middle regions. Relative humidity, daily minimum temperature, daily average temperature and average wind speed are main factors influencing variation of extreme wet and dry events in Altay region. The extreme dry events present negative correlation with PANI, whereas the extreme wet events present positive correlation with PANI.


Lindahl E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sattorov N.,Tajik Agrarian University | Boqvist S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Magnusson U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. © 2015 Lindahl et al.


Lindahl E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sattorov N.,Tajik Agrarian University | Boqvist S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sattori I.,Tajik Agrarian University | Magnusson U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904 cows of breeding age belonging to 443 herds in 32 villages were serologically tested with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples confirmed with competitive ELISA. Two logistic regression models were used to investigate an association between seropositivity and risk factors at herd and individual level. The herd and individual seroprevalences were 4.1 and 2.0 %, respectively. Herds with a history of abortions were found to be associated with seropositivity [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.3-21.3]. Large herds with more than eight cattle were more likely to be seropositive compared to smaller herds with one to two cattle (OR = 13.9; 95 % CI, 1.6-119). The number of calves produced per cow (indicating age) was found to be associated with seropositivity. Younger cows with one to two produced calves were less likely to be seropositive compared to older cows with more than six produced calves (OR = 0.24; 95 % CI, 0.06-1.0). Neither introduction of new cattle to the herd nor communal grazing was associated with seropositivity. This study shows that infection with Brucella (1) is present in small-scale urban and peri-urban dairy farming in Tajikistan and (2) has significant negative effects on reproductive performance in this farming system and (3) that some previously known risk factors for seropositivity in rural farming system were absent here. © 2014 The Author(s).


Berlin A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Rahmatov M.,Tajik Agrarian University | Rahmatov M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Muminjanov H.,Tajik Agrarian University | Yuen J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, is a potential threat to wheat production in Central Asia. To investigate if sexual reproduction is important for the epidemiology of the disease, the population biology of the fungus was studied. Samples of P. graminis were collected from six wheat fields and from wild oats within two of the wheat fields during the growing season of 2010. The population structure of P. graminis was investigated by evaluating a total of 121 single uredinia collected from wheat and wild oats, using nine polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The results presented in this study indicate that there is a selection process by the grass host, in particular wheat, that favours certain clones, which in turn affects the population structure of P. graminis in Tajikistan. The genotypic variation was large, both within and between the wheat fields and three populations were in linkage equilibrium, indicating that sexual reproduction within the P. graminis population takes place. This leads to the conclusion that the presence of Berberis spp. in Tajikistan has an important role in the population dynamics of P. graminis within the country, even if the fungus must reproduce primarily in a clonal manner during most of the year. Results also confirm that the two formae speciales, P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. avenae, are genetically different even if they were collected in the same field. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Rajala E.L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Grahn C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ljung I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sattorov N.,Tajik Agrarian University | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats on small-scale farms in a peri-urban area of Tajikistan and identify factors associated with seropositivity. The study population was 667 female sheep and goats >6 months of age from 21 villages in four districts surrounding the capital city, Dushanbe. Individual blood samples were collected during October and November 2012 and analysed with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. To identify factors associated with seropositivity at an individual level, a generalised linear mixed model was applied to account for clustering of individuals within villages and districts. The true individual seroprevalence was 6.7 % and ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 % between the four districts. Fourteen villages had at least one seropositive sheep or goat, resulting in apparent prevalence of 67 % at village level. The seroprevalence at individual level was significantly lower in Rudaki district (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.03–0.4) and Varzob district (OR = 0.3; 95 % CI 0.09–0.8) than in Vahdat district. Sheep were more likely than goats to be seropositive (OR = 2.7; 95 % CI 1.3–5.5). Increasing age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI 1.2–1.6). These results indicate high prevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats in the peri-urban area of the capital city in Tajikistan. Given the dense human population in such areas, this could constitute a threat to public health, besides causing significant production losses. © 2016 The Author(s)


PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Tajik Agrarian University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats on small-scale farms in a peri-urban area of Tajikistan and identify factors associated with seropositivity. The study population was 667 female sheep and goats >6months of age from 21 villages in four districts surrounding the capital city, Dushanbe. Individual blood samples were collected during October and November 2012 and analysed with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. To identify factors associated with seropositivity at an individual level, a generalised linear mixed model was applied to account for clustering of individuals within villages and districts. The true individual seroprevalence was 6.7% and ranged from 1.0 to 15.6% between the four districts. Fourteen villages had at least one seropositive sheep or goat, resulting in apparent prevalence of 67% at village level. The seroprevalence at individual level was significantly lower in Rudaki district (odds ratio (OR)=0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.4) and Varzob district (OR=0.3; 95% CI 0.09-0.8) than in Vahdat district. Sheep were more likely than goats to be seropositive (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.3-5.5). Increasing age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR=1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6). These results indicate high prevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats in the peri-urban area of the capital city in Tajikistan. Given the dense human population in such areas, this could constitute a threat to public health, besides causing significant production losses.


PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Tajik Agrarian University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes.


Rahmani M.,Tajik Agrarian University | Bakhshi D.,Guilan University | Qolov M.,Tajik Agrarian University
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2015

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of bud pruning severity and training systems on some of the pomological traits of red and white seedless table grapes cvs white seedless and red seedless. The 12-year-old vines were trained in conventional and trellis systems each pruned to 2, 6 and 8 buds in canes. Results revealed that soluble solid content was significantly affected (24.2 °Brix) by the training system and bud pruning, whereas bud pruning had no significant effect on titratable acidity. Fruits from the trellis training system had a higher total phenolic content, total flavonoids and flavonoid compounds content as compared with conventional system. In white seedless cultivar, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in 4 buds pruning of trellis system (77.3%), while in the red cultivar 8 buds pruning of trellis system had the highest antioxidant capacity (78.7%). Overall, trellis training system with moderate bud pruning can be considered for increasing table grape nutritional quality.

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