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Wang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,Taizhou Municipal Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Pan B.,Taizhou Municipal Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) and metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As) in sediments, soils and herb plants from unregulated e-waste disposal sites were examined. The metal concentrations, ∑PBDE and TBBPA concentrations in all samples from the examined e-waste dismantling sites were relatively high in comparison with those of rural and urban areas around the world. The PBDE and TBBPA levels in soils significantly decreased with increasing distance from the e-waste dismantling sites, indicating that PBDEs and TBBPA had similar transport potential from the e-waste dismantling process as a point source to the surrounding region. BDE-209 and TBBPA predominated in all samples, which is consistent with the evidence that the deca-BDE and TBBPA commercial mixtures were extensively used in electronic products. Metals, PBDEs and TBBPA displayed significant positive correlations with TOC, whereas the correlations with pH were insignificant, indicating that TOC was a major factor governing the spatial distribution, transportation and fate in sediments and soils. A significant relationship between log-transformed metals and BFR concentrations indicated common pollution sources. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis further confirmed that the metals and BFRs had a common source, and penta- and deca-BDE commercial products may be two sources of PBDEs in this region. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Xu F.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhang G.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Forty-four indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected from e-waste workshops and were analyzed to characterize the heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) as well as on-site human exposure. The results showed that the most abundant Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congener from three sites was deca-BDE, and it was penta-BDE for the other site. A significant and positive association was found between BDE-209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). The high percentage of nona-BDE indicated the debromination of deca-BDE during e-waste recycling. The ratio comparison of BDE-47 to (BDE-100 + BDE-99) indicated that the outdoor dust went through more physiochemical processes. The enrichment factors for Cu and Pb were high in both the indoor and outdoor samples. Cd significantly exceeded the Chinese soil guideline grade III. The PCA results combined with the enrichment factor (EF) values suggested common sources and behaviours of Cu, Pb and Sb in the indoor dust. Co, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn in the outdoor samples were more likely affected by crust. Strong correlations were found only for Pb and Sb with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The hazard index for on-site human exposure to Pb was at a chronic risk. Despite the low deleterious risk of BFRs, concern should be given to DBDPE; the chronic toxicity of which is not known. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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