Usui Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Sakai H.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Tokida T.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Nakamura H.,Taiyo Keiki Co. 1 12 3 Nakajujo Kitaku Tokyo 114 0032 Japan |
And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016
Rising air temperatures are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important temperature environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of temperature and [CO2], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-air CO2 enrichment and soil and water warming experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2] (+200 μmol mol-1, E-[CO2]) and soil and water temperatures (+2 °C, E-T). E-[CO2] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3 years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26 °C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2] and rising air temperatures synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of rice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.