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Grateloupia huangiae S.-M. Lin & H.-Y. Liang sp. nov. was previously recorded as G. okamurae Yamada [currently recognized as Polyopes lancifolius (Harvey) Kawaguchi & H.W. Wang] in Taiwan. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that G. huangiae is unrelated to P. lancifolius but is closely related to Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M. Lin & H.-Y. Liang. Although G. huangiae superficially resembles P. lancifolius in having a leafy thallus and short proliferations borne on the thallus surface, the structure of the auxiliary-cell ampulla is very different. The auxiliary-cell ampulla of G. huangiae is composed of three orders of unbranched filaments before diploidization, each of which is 11-13 cells long. The auxiliary cell is the first cell of the third-order ampullar filament, which is cut off from the first cell of the secondorder ampullar filament. This type of auxiliary-cell ampulla is the same as that found in G. taiwanensis. On the other hand, P. lancifolius has a more complex auxiliary-cell ampulla in which the ampullar filaments may bear up to five to six orders of branches before diploidization. A detailed study of the development of auxiliary-cell ampullae before and after diploidization is needed in other species and genera within the Halymeniaceae to better delineate generic concepts in the family. Source

Huang Y.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Hsiao P.-C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Chai H.-J.,Taiwanese Fisheries Research Institute
Ceramics International

In recent years, environmental and economic conditions have raised concerns about the treatment and use of bio-waste. This study analyzed hydroxyapatite extracted from fish scale (FHAP) by enzymatic hydrolysis. The structures of FHAP were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The analytical results indicated that FHAP consisted of nano-sized particles with Ca/P ratio of 1.76. After FHAP particles were sintered at 800°C for 4 h, the particles showed increased porosity and surface roughness. The influence of FHAP particles on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MG63 cells was also investigated. Compared with hydroxyapatite from Sigma (SHAP), FHAP significantly increased MG63 growth, whether hydroxyapatite powders were sintered or not. Under osteogenic-inductive culture condition, FHAP particles promoted osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of MG63 cells, which was confirmed by alkaline phosphate assay and von Kossa staining. This study confirms that FHAP extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis is a promising biomaterial for artificial bone fabrication. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source

Kai Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Su H.-M.,Taiwanese Fisheries Research Institute | Tai K.-T.,Long Diann Marine Biotechnology Co. | Chi S.-C.,National Taiwan University

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has caused mass mortality in many species of cultured fish at larval stage. Strong evidence of vertical transmission of NNV has been reported in the carrier broodstock of striped jack and sea bass. An effective immunization program was developed and monitored in adult groupers (Epinephelus coioides) with average body weight of 1.35 kg. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were found in the fish intramuscularly injected with adjuvanted NNV vaccine at 109 TCID50 kg-1, and the enhanced 2-fold neutralization activity could sustain up to 17 months post-vaccination (mpv). An immunization program was applied in the broodstocks of grouper (Epinephelus tukula) with body weight of 35-60 kg. The levels of NNV-specific antibodies detected, from 1 to 5 mpi, in the homogenates of the eggs from the vaccinated broodfish were elevated than that from non-vaccinated fish. By nested RT-PCR, NNV was detectable in the eggs from the non-vaccinated fish at Month 5, but not in the eggs from vaccinated fish. It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chang C.-S.,National Taiwan University | Huang S.-L.,Taiwanese Fisheries Research Institute | Chen S.,National Taiwan University | Chen S.-N.,National Taiwan University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology

This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0g and 2.0g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers.Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus.Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hseu J.-R.,Taiwanese Fisheries Research Institute | Huang W.-B.,National Dong Hwa University
Aquaculture Research

Cannibalism is frequently observed in larviculture of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Previously, based on measurements of morphometric characters, a linear equation of total length (TL) of prey to cannibals was proposed: TLprey = 0.80 TLcannibal - 1.50. To verify the reliability of the equation, experiments were performed with pairs of fish with different TLs. Cannibalism occurred only when the cannibal-prey size ratios were equal to or larger than that predicted by the equation. To predict the probability of cannibalism among the grouper of known TLs, a logistic regression model was proposed. The logistic regression model is:P(occurence|TLprey,TLcannibal)=11+e-(0.197TLcannibal-0.402TLprey+3.811) The logistic regression model showed the following: when either TLprey or TLcannibal is constant, the probability of cannibalism increases with increase in the cannibal-prey size ratios; if given a constant cannibal-prey size ratio, probability of cannibalism is lower in early stages than in later stages. The prediction contrasts with that calculated from the linear equation where the minimum cannibal-prey size ratios decrease with size of the cannibal. However, the prediction matches observed rearing experiences: cannibals prefer smaller prey to larger ones and the cannibalism rate declines as fry age. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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