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Gao C.,Lund University | Lin L.-Y.,Taiwan Textile Research Institute TTRI | Halder A.,Lund University | Kuklane K.,Lund University | Holmer I.,Lund University
Applied Ergonomics | Year: 2015

American standard ASTM F2732 estimates the lowest environmental temperature for thermal comfort for cold weather protective clothing. International standard ISO 11079 serves the same purpose but expresses cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation for a given cold climate. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the temperature ratings using human subject tests at two levels of metabolic rates (2 and 4 MET corresponding to 116.4 and 232.8 W/m2). Nine young and healthy male subjects participated in the cold exposure at 3.4 and-30.6°C. The results showed that both standards predict similar temperature ratings for an intrinsic clothing insulation of 1.89clo and for 2 MET activity. The predicted temperature rating for 2 MET activity is consistent with test subjects' thermophysiological responses, perceived thermal sensation and thermal comfort. For 4 MET activity, however, the whole body responses were on the cold side, particularly the responses of the extremities. ASTM F2732 is also limited due to its omission and simplification of three climatic variables (air velocity, radiant temperature and relative humidity) and exposure time in the cold which are of practical importance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.

Lee M.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Ho C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin H.-M.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wang P.-Y.,Taiwan Textile Research Institute TTRI | Lu J.-S.,Taiwan Textile Research Institute TTRI
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2014

Ethanol was used as a cosolvent to enhance the solubility of disperse dyestuffs in supercritical fluids. In the presence of ethanol, from (1 to 5) mol%, the gas-solid equilibrium data of the Disperse Red 82 and modified Disperse Yellow 119 in supercritical carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide have been measured at temperatures from (353.2 to 393.2) K and pressures from (15.0 to 30.0) MPa. The experimental results show that the solubility increases substantially, up to (9 to 25)-fold, by adding 5 mol% of ethanol to the supercritical fluids. In the presence of cosolvent ethanol, the solubility enhancements in nitrous oxide system are much greater than that in carbon dioxide system for modified Disperse Yellow 119 at the same temperature and pressure. The solubility data were correlated with the Chrastil and the Méndez-Santiago and Teja models. The Méndez-Santiago and Teja model yields slightly better results than Chrastil model. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tode R.,Osaka Prefecture University | Ebrahimi A.,Osaka Prefecture University | Fukumoto S.,Osaka Prefecture University | Iyatani K.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 5 more authors.
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2010

A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) deposition method was applied to prepare a unique double-layered visible light-responsive TiO 2 thin film photocatalyst on a Ti foil substrate (DL-TiO 2/Ti). The DL-TiO2/Ti consists of a UV light-responsive TiO2 thin film (UV-TiO2) deposited as the inner block layer on a Ti foil substrate and a visible light-responsive TiO2 thin film (Vis-TiO2) deposited as the outer layer. DL-TiO2/Ti exhibited higher photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance under both UV and visible light irradiation than a single-layered Vis-TiO2 thin film photocatalyst deposited on a Ti foil substrate. The optimal thickness of the UV-TiO2 film as the inner block layer of DL-TiO2/Ti was found be 100 nm in terms of the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance. Expanding on this work, a novel double-layered TiO2 thin film device, DL-TiO2/Ti/Pt, was also prepared by the RF-MS method where DL-TiO2 was deposited on one side of a Ti foil substrate and Pt was deposited on the other side. The separate evolution of H2 and O2 from H2O was successfully achieved by using an H-type glass cell consisting of two aqueous phases separated by the DL-TiO 2/Ti/Pt and a proton-exchange membrane. The separate evolution rate of H2 and O2 was found to be dramatically enhanced on DL-TiO2/Ti/Pt as compared with a single-layered Vis-TiO2 thin film device under white light irradiation from a solar simulator. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Toyao T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Minakata M.,Osaka Prefecture University | Iyatani K.,Osaka Prefecture University | Ebrahimi A.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 5 more authors.
Research on Chemical Intermediates | Year: 2013

A visible-light-responsive TiO2 thin film (Vis-TiO2), possessing a unique columnar structure oriented perpendicular to the substrate, has been prepared by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition method. The unique TiO2 thin film was used as a key component of N719 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The rough morphology caused by the columnar structure leads to enhanced photovoltaic performances of these DSSCs as a consequence of increased amounts of adsorbed dyes and facilitated diffusion of the electrolyte into Vis-TiO2 film. Additionally, photovoltaic performances of the DSSCs were found to depend strongly on the thickness of the Vis-TiO2 film, which can be readily controlled by adjusting the sputtering time conducted for deposition. Consequently, a solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 2.6 % under AM 1.5 illumination was observed for an optimally performing DSSC that has a Vis-TiO2 film thickness of 6.9 μm, prepared by employing a sputtering time of 700 min. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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