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Lin Y.-S.,Taipei Medical University | Lu Y.-L.,Taipei Medical University | Wang G.-J.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen L.-G.,National Chiayi University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Peng M.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang H.-R.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Huang J.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
New Biotechnology

Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the β-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the β-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified β-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yang C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Tan D.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Hsu W.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Jong T.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Ethnopharmacological relevance Peperomia sui Lin and Lu (Peperomia sui), a well-known Taiwanese folk medicine, has a broad range of biological effects, especially in treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases. However, no previous study has explored the activity of Peperomia sui against influenza virus infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-influenza virus activity and the potential virucidal effect of the ethanolic extract of Peperomia sui (PSE). Methods The anti-H6N1 avian influenza viral activity of PSE against the influenza virus A/Chicken/TW/0518/2011 (H6N1) in chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells was evaluated by cell viability assay, hemagglutination assay, neuraminidase activity assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay and quantitative RT-PCR assay. Results PSE significantly increased the viability of cells that were infected by the H6N1 virus. PSE also suppressed the synthesis of viral nucleoprotein (NP), and inhibited the growth of the virus in DF-1 cells. Further, PSE inhibited the neuraminidase activity of H6N1 virus. Conclusions The findings of this study provide important information for the exploitation and utilization of Peperomia sui in treatment of influenza infection. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chung W.C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chen L.W.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang J.H.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Huang H.C.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Chung W.H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Pathology

The pathogenicity of 35 Fusarium solani isolates obtained from diseased leaves of greenhouse-grown Phalaenopsis plants in Taiwan was tested on different orchids, including Phalaenopsis sp., Cymbidium spp., Oncidium sp., Dendrobium sp. and Cattleya sp., plus pea (Pisum sativum), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) and cucurbit [melon (Cucumis melo) and cucmber (C. sativus)] plants. Isolates of F. solani from Phalaenopsis spp. caused severe leaf yellowing on Phalaenopsis and mild symptoms on Cymbidium spp., but no visual symptoms on Oncidium sp., Dendrobium sp., Cattleya sp., pea, chrysanthemum or melon. Fusarium solani isolates collected from Phalaenopsis, pea and cucurbits were molecularly characterized by internal transcribed spacer (ITS), intergenic spacer (IGS) and β-tubulin gene analyses. Phylogenetic trees constructed by distance and parsimony methods indicated that isolates from Phalaenopsis were grouped into one type based on ITS, IGS and β-tubulin sequences with high bootstrap value (>84%) support, compared to 'formae speciales' of F. solani from the other hosts. These analyses show that isolates of F. solani from Phalaenopsis are distinct from F. solani isolates from other hosts in Taiwan. Therefore, it is proposed that F. solani isolates that incite Phalaenopsis leaf yellowing be designated F. solani f. sp. phalaenopsis. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP. Source

Huang L.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Pathology

Stem rot of Anoectochilus formosanus (Af) caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) is a major limiting factor to jewel orchid production in Taiwan. Fo causes discoloration in vascular tissues. However, some newly collected Fo isolates from Af stem rot do not cause vascular discoloration, suggesting changes may have occurred in the pathogen. Among recent Fo isolates from Af there are two colony types, the cottony alba (CA) and the sporodochial (S). In order to confirm that both colony types cause Af stem rot, 200 isolates were obtained from diseased stems in Nantou County and characterized by colony type and whether or not the infected plants had vascular discoloration. Isolates of both the CA and S types caused stem rot of Af; some isolates in each colony type caused vascular discoloration whilst others did not. Pathogenicity tests with 22 isolates resulted in stem rot disease severity ratings on Af of 3·1-4·0 and 2·1-4·0 with CA and S type colonies, respectively. The same isolates failed to cause disease on Cattleya, Dendrobium or Phalaenopsis plants. Phylogenetic analysis of partial intergenic spacer sequences showed that these isolates were distinguishable from other formae speciales of Fo and could be separated into two groups correlated with the CA or S type colonies with high bootstrap. Based on pathogenic, morphological and molecular characterizations, the Fo that causes stem rot of Af is proposed to be a new forma specialis, F. oxysporum f. sp. anoectochili, with different pathotypes. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology. Source

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