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Lin Y.-S.,Taipei Medical University | Lu Y.-L.,Taipei Medical University | Wang G.-J.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen L.-G.,National Chiayi University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Lee C.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Chen L.-G.,National Chiayi University | Chang T.-L.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Ke W.-M.,Taipei Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, well-known skin-care functional parameters were used, including UV absorption, DPPH-scavenging, NO-production-inhibition, tyrosinase-inhibition activity and anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity to measure the effects of the 70% acetone-extracts form 28 species of Lamiaceae plants. Further, the phytochemical contents were explored by total phenol (TP), total flavone (TF) and total coumarin (TC). The correlation between the skin-care effects and the phytochemical contents was analysed by non-parametric correlation analysis. Amongst the 70% acetone-extracts, Origanum majorana displayed the strongest DPPH-scavenging and tyrosinase-inhibitory effects and the richest phenol content. Based on the statistics results, the phytochemical contents were related with those parameters, such as: DPPH-scavenging effects vs. TP (R= 0.542), TF vs. TP (R= 0.613), and NO-inhibitory vs. anti-bacterial activities (R= 0.767). Moreover, each genus of Lamiaceae had different properties of skin-care effects. Form our research works, the Lamiaceae is good resources to develop skin-care cosmetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Fo Guang University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

The increasing prevalence of obesity continues to gain more attention worldwide. In this study, diet-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the antiobesity effects of extracts, fractions, and purified compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT). The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 5-week high-fat diet (HF) concurrently with ethanol extracts (Et-ext, 80 mg/kg) from roots (R), stems (S), and leaves (L) by oral gavage daily. Only R-Et-ext interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group; however, mouse plasma contents of total cholesterols (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) of all three Et-ext intervened groups showed significant reductions compared with those in the HF group. Furthermore, intervention with the ethyl acetate-partitioned fraction (EA-fra, 60 mg/kg) from R-Et-ext but not the n-butanol-partitioned fraction or water fraction from R-Et-ext showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The same molecular weights of three resveratrol tetramers, (+)-hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B, were isolated from the EA-fra of VTT-R. The (+)-vitisin A and fenofibrate (25 mg/kg) but not the (+)-hopeaphenol and (-)-vitisin B interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The total feed intake among the HF groups with or without interventions showed no significant differences. The mouse plasma contents of TC, TG, LDL, free fatty acid, and plasma lipase activity of the three resveratrol tetramer-intervened groups showed reductions in the mice compared with those in the HF group. It was proposed that the lipase inhibitory activities of VTT extracts and purified resveratrol tetramers might contribute in part to the antiobesity effect, and these results suggested that VTT may be developed as functional food for achieving antiobesity objectives and requires further investigation.


Huang L.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Stem rot of Anoectochilus formosanus (Af) caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) is a major limiting factor to jewel orchid production in Taiwan. Fo causes discoloration in vascular tissues. However, some newly collected Fo isolates from Af stem rot do not cause vascular discoloration, suggesting changes may have occurred in the pathogen. Among recent Fo isolates from Af there are two colony types, the cottony alba (CA) and the sporodochial (S). In order to confirm that both colony types cause Af stem rot, 200 isolates were obtained from diseased stems in Nantou County and characterized by colony type and whether or not the infected plants had vascular discoloration. Isolates of both the CA and S types caused stem rot of Af; some isolates in each colony type caused vascular discoloration whilst others did not. Pathogenicity tests with 22 isolates resulted in stem rot disease severity ratings on Af of 3·1-4·0 and 2·1-4·0 with CA and S type colonies, respectively. The same isolates failed to cause disease on Cattleya, Dendrobium or Phalaenopsis plants. Phylogenetic analysis of partial intergenic spacer sequences showed that these isolates were distinguishable from other formae speciales of Fo and could be separated into two groups correlated with the CA or S type colonies with high bootstrap. Based on pathogenic, morphological and molecular characterizations, the Fo that causes stem rot of Af is proposed to be a new forma specialis, F. oxysporum f. sp. anoectochili, with different pathotypes. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Liao Y.-J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Tsai Y.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sun Y.-W.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Lin R.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu F.-S.,Virginia Commonwealth University
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2011

Paphiopedilum species are recalcitrant in tissue culture, and no explant from mature plants has been successfully mass propagated in vitro. This study was aimed at inducing shoots and regenerating plants from the flowering plants of a sequentially flowering Paphiopedilum Deperle and a single floral Paphiopedilum Armeni White. By using cross-sectioned flower buds (FBs), we found that in both species, only sections that contained the base tissue of FBs were able to produce shoots and plants. We have also found that sections of FBs between 1.5 and 3.0 cm from Paphiopedilum Deperle were able to produce shoots, but only sections of FBs >2.5 cm from Paphiopedilum Armeni White were regenerable. Our microscopic observations revealed that the small bract at the FB base harbored a new miniature FB, which further harbored a primitive FB with dome-shaped meristem-like tissues that presumably led to the plant induction. The reiteration of this pattern resulted in a scorpioid cyme inflorescence architecture in the multifloral Paphiopedilum species, and its failure to reiterate resulted in a single flower. The induction rates were 57-75%, and all plants survived in a greenhouse. This method is potentially applicable for the micropropagation and conservation of slipper orchids. © 2011 The Society for In Vitro Biology.


Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Peng M.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang H.-R.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Huang J.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the β-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the β-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified β-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Sun Y.W.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Liao Y.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Hung Y.S.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chang J.C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sung J.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum micranthum and Paphiopedilum delenatii are endangered orchid species. These three Paphiopedilum species and their hybrids are difficult to distinguish morphologically. In this study, rDNA-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences were used to design species-specific SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers to distinguish P. armeniacum, P. micranthum, P. delenatii and their respective hybrids. The developed markers efficiently amplified 600. bp DNA product for P. armeniacum and its hybrids (SCAR-600armF/Pap-ITS2R), 300. bp product for P. delenatii and its hybrids (SCAR-300delF/Pap-ITS2R) and 700. bp product for P. micranthum and its hybrids (SCAR-700micF/Pap-ITS2R). The effectiveness of designed species-specific markers was also confirmed by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification with a combination of developed three SCAR markers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chuang S.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chen C.L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sung J.M.,Hungkuang University
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

Both morphological characteristics and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to validate the genetic fidelity of 1 080 field-grown Echinacea purpurea plants regenerated from leaf explants of donor T5-9. Morphological diagnosis revealed that 1 067 out of 1 080 regenerants were normal, while 13 regenerants were aberrant. AFLP analysis was further performed to assess DNA variations among donor, 43 sampled normal regenerants and all 13 aberrant regenerants. Seven primer combinations generated 471 fragments among donor and normal regenerants, of which 9 fragments were polymorphic. The same primer pairs generated 484 fragments for aberrant regenerants, of which 417 fragments were polymorphic. UPGMA clustering indicated that 42 normal regenerants and donor fell into same cluster at similarity scale of > 0. 99, while all 13 aberrant regenerants and one morphologically normal regenerant comprised the other clusters. AFLP analysis indicated that these 14 regenerants are off-types. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Chuang S.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chen C.L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.J.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Sung J.M.,Hungkuang University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Echinacea is an allogamous genus, thus its cultivars or populations are genetically heterogeneous. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to estimate the genetic diversity of Echinacea is generally limited by the large number of individual plants and the higher cost that need to be processed. In the present study, effectiveness of several sizes of DNA bulking (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 individuals) with 20, 36 and 55 primer pairs was compared using AFLP in determining the genetic diversity of Echinacea species. The results indicated that the use of bulked DNA-based AFLP analysis by using the selected eight primer pairs was capable of detecting genetic diversity between the tested Echinacea species, provided that the potential presence of low frequency variants was ignored and a possible bias in the estimates of genetic similarity was accepted. The assessments showed that a bulk of 15 individuals could detect sufficient AFLP variations at most genomic sites. Additionally, 20 primer pairs could generate sufficient polymorphic fragments to achieve high resolving power of AFLP for the tested Echinacea species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chung W.C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chen L.W.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang J.H.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Huang H.C.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Chung W.H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

The pathogenicity of 35 Fusarium solani isolates obtained from diseased leaves of greenhouse-grown Phalaenopsis plants in Taiwan was tested on different orchids, including Phalaenopsis sp., Cymbidium spp., Oncidium sp., Dendrobium sp. and Cattleya sp., plus pea (Pisum sativum), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) and cucurbit [melon (Cucumis melo) and cucmber (C. sativus)] plants. Isolates of F. solani from Phalaenopsis spp. caused severe leaf yellowing on Phalaenopsis and mild symptoms on Cymbidium spp., but no visual symptoms on Oncidium sp., Dendrobium sp., Cattleya sp., pea, chrysanthemum or melon. Fusarium solani isolates collected from Phalaenopsis, pea and cucurbits were molecularly characterized by internal transcribed spacer (ITS), intergenic spacer (IGS) and β-tubulin gene analyses. Phylogenetic trees constructed by distance and parsimony methods indicated that isolates from Phalaenopsis were grouped into one type based on ITS, IGS and β-tubulin sequences with high bootstrap value (>84%) support, compared to 'formae speciales' of F. solani from the other hosts. These analyses show that isolates of F. solani from Phalaenopsis are distinct from F. solani isolates from other hosts in Taiwan. Therefore, it is proposed that F. solani isolates that incite Phalaenopsis leaf yellowing be designated F. solani f. sp. phalaenopsis. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP.

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