Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station

Taichung, Taiwan

Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station

Taichung, Taiwan
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Chen C.-R.,National Taitung University | Wen C.-L.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chang C.-I.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2017

In this study, hot-water extracts (HW) from roots of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT-R) were shown to lower levels of lipid accumulation significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.001) compared to the control in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The VTT-R-HW (40 mg/kg) interventions concurrent with a high-fat (HF) diet in C57BL/6 mice over a 5 eek period were shown to reduce body weights significantly (P < 0.05) compared to those of mice fed a HF diet under the same food-intake regimen. The (+)-ε-viniferin isolated from VTT-R-HW was shown to reduce the size of lipid deposits significantly compared to the control (P < 0.05 or 0.001) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and dose-dependent 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitions showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated to be 96 μM. The two-stage (+)-ε-viniferin interventions (10 mg/kg, day 1 to day 38; 25 mg/kg, day 39 to day 58) were shown to lower mice body weights significantly (P < 0.05 or 0.001), the weight ratio of mesenteric fat, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein compared to that of the HF group under the same food-intake regimen but without concurrent VTT-R-HW interventions. It might be possible to use VTT-R-HW or (+)-ε-viniferin as an ingredient in the development of functional foods for weight management, and this will need to be investigated further.

Deng J.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Chang Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Wen C.-L.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Liao J.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, fracture and injury, jaundice, and hepatitis in Taiwan. Aim of the study: The hepatoprotective activity of its plant extracts seems to be been associated with its antioxidant activity. This paper aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of the ethanol extract of Vitis thunbergii (EVT). Materials and methods: In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of EVT was established. Antioxidant ability of EVT was investigated by employing several established in vitro methods. In vivo antioxidant activity was tested against CCl4-induced toxicity in mice. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected in the blood to indicate hepatic injury. Product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were evaluated for oxidative stress in hepatic injury. Moreover, histopathological observation was assayed for the degree of hepatic injury. Results: EVT exhibited strong antioxidant ability in vitro. After oral administration of EVT significantly decreased ALT and AST, and ameliorated the oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and increased the activity of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GSH. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased in the group treated with CCl4 plus EVT. Western blotting revealed that EVT blocked protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in CCl4-treated rats, significantly. Histopathological examination of livers showed that EVT reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis in CCl 4-treated rats. Conclusion: This study suggests that EVT possesses antioxidant effects in vitro and hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by CCl4 in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of EVT against CCl4-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant properties. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Wen C.-L.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Wen C.-L.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chang C.-C.,National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine | Huang S.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Aims of the study: Antrodia cinnamomea is a folk medicinal mushroom commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of several types of cancers and inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to explore the folk use of Antrodia cinnamomea on pharmacological grounds to characterize the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of liquid cultured mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea (MEMAC) was judged by the measurement of the produced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of MEMAC was evaluated using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite oxide (NO) in the edema paw. The levels of serum NO and TNF-α were measured. The MEMAC was administered at the concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of mouse. Results: MEMAC inhibited the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and mediators (NO and PGE2) in RAW264.7 cells and human PBMCs. Data from Western blotting showed that MEMAC decreased the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo, MEMAC showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the edema volume in carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. MEMAC (400 mg/kg) also reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration (50.92 ± 5.71%). Further, MEMAC increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the liver tissue and decreased the levels of serum NO and TNF-α after carrageenan administration. Conclusions: Our results showed that MEMAC has the anti-inflammatory property both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

Lin Y.-S.,Taipei Medical University | Lu Y.-L.,Taipei Medical University | Wang G.-J.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen L.-G.,National Chiayi University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extracts (EE) and compounds isolated from the small-leaf grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana, VTT). The highest antiangiotensin-converting enzyme (anti-ACE) was found in stem-EE (IC50 was 69.5 μg/mL). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), stem-EE effectively reduced blood pressure 24 h after administration of a single oral dose or when administered daily for 4 weeks. The isolated compounds, including (+)-vitisin A, ampelopsin C, and (+)-ε-viniferin, were shown to have anti-ACE and vasodilating effects against phenylephrine-induced tensions in an endothelium-intact aortic ring, with (+)-vitisin A being the most effective compound. Compared to control rats, SHRs showed significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h after a single oral dose of (+)-vitisin A (10 mg/kg) or captopril (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that the development of functional foods with VTT extracts may be beneficial for regulating blood pressure. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Lee C.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Chen L.-G.,National Chiayi University | Chang T.-L.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Ke W.-M.,Taipei Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, well-known skin-care functional parameters were used, including UV absorption, DPPH-scavenging, NO-production-inhibition, tyrosinase-inhibition activity and anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity to measure the effects of the 70% acetone-extracts form 28 species of Lamiaceae plants. Further, the phytochemical contents were explored by total phenol (TP), total flavone (TF) and total coumarin (TC). The correlation between the skin-care effects and the phytochemical contents was analysed by non-parametric correlation analysis. Amongst the 70% acetone-extracts, Origanum majorana displayed the strongest DPPH-scavenging and tyrosinase-inhibitory effects and the richest phenol content. Based on the statistics results, the phytochemical contents were related with those parameters, such as: DPPH-scavenging effects vs. TP (R= 0.542), TF vs. TP (R= 0.613), and NO-inhibitory vs. anti-bacterial activities (R= 0.767). Moreover, each genus of Lamiaceae had different properties of skin-care effects. Form our research works, the Lamiaceae is good resources to develop skin-care cosmetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Huang L.-W.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang C.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin Y.-S.,Asia University, Taiwan | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Stem rot of Anoectochilus formosanus (Af) caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) is a major limiting factor to jewel orchid production in Taiwan. Fo causes discoloration in vascular tissues. However, some newly collected Fo isolates from Af stem rot do not cause vascular discoloration, suggesting changes may have occurred in the pathogen. Among recent Fo isolates from Af there are two colony types, the cottony alba (CA) and the sporodochial (S). In order to confirm that both colony types cause Af stem rot, 200 isolates were obtained from diseased stems in Nantou County and characterized by colony type and whether or not the infected plants had vascular discoloration. Isolates of both the CA and S types caused stem rot of Af; some isolates in each colony type caused vascular discoloration whilst others did not. Pathogenicity tests with 22 isolates resulted in stem rot disease severity ratings on Af of 3·1-4·0 and 2·1-4·0 with CA and S type colonies, respectively. The same isolates failed to cause disease on Cattleya, Dendrobium or Phalaenopsis plants. Phylogenetic analysis of partial intergenic spacer sequences showed that these isolates were distinguishable from other formae speciales of Fo and could be separated into two groups correlated with the CA or S type colonies with high bootstrap. Based on pathogenic, morphological and molecular characterizations, the Fo that causes stem rot of Af is proposed to be a new forma specialis, F. oxysporum f. sp. anoectochili, with different pathotypes. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Liao Y.-J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Tsai Y.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sun Y.-W.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Lin R.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Wu F.-S.,Virginia Commonwealth University
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2011

Paphiopedilum species are recalcitrant in tissue culture, and no explant from mature plants has been successfully mass propagated in vitro. This study was aimed at inducing shoots and regenerating plants from the flowering plants of a sequentially flowering Paphiopedilum Deperle and a single floral Paphiopedilum Armeni White. By using cross-sectioned flower buds (FBs), we found that in both species, only sections that contained the base tissue of FBs were able to produce shoots and plants. We have also found that sections of FBs between 1.5 and 3.0 cm from Paphiopedilum Deperle were able to produce shoots, but only sections of FBs >2.5 cm from Paphiopedilum Armeni White were regenerable. Our microscopic observations revealed that the small bract at the FB base harbored a new miniature FB, which further harbored a primitive FB with dome-shaped meristem-like tissues that presumably led to the plant induction. The reiteration of this pattern resulted in a scorpioid cyme inflorescence architecture in the multifloral Paphiopedilum species, and its failure to reiterate resulted in a single flower. The induction rates were 57-75%, and all plants survived in a greenhouse. This method is potentially applicable for the micropropagation and conservation of slipper orchids. © 2011 The Society for In Vitro Biology.

Chung W.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Chung W.-C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Peng M.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang H.-R.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Huang J.-W.,National Chung Hsing University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the β-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the β-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified β-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Sun Y.W.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Liao Y.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Hung Y.S.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chang J.C.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sung J.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum micranthum and Paphiopedilum delenatii are endangered orchid species. These three Paphiopedilum species and their hybrids are difficult to distinguish morphologically. In this study, rDNA-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences were used to design species-specific SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers to distinguish P. armeniacum, P. micranthum, P. delenatii and their respective hybrids. The developed markers efficiently amplified 600. bp DNA product for P. armeniacum and its hybrids (SCAR-600armF/Pap-ITS2R), 300. bp product for P. delenatii and its hybrids (SCAR-300delF/Pap-ITS2R) and 700. bp product for P. micranthum and its hybrids (SCAR-700micF/Pap-ITS2R). The effectiveness of designed species-specific markers was also confirmed by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification with a combination of developed three SCAR markers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Chuang S.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Chen C.L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen J.J.,Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station | Sung J.M.,Hungkuang University
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

Both morphological characteristics and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to validate the genetic fidelity of 1 080 field-grown Echinacea purpurea plants regenerated from leaf explants of donor T5-9. Morphological diagnosis revealed that 1 067 out of 1 080 regenerants were normal, while 13 regenerants were aberrant. AFLP analysis was further performed to assess DNA variations among donor, 43 sampled normal regenerants and all 13 aberrant regenerants. Seven primer combinations generated 471 fragments among donor and normal regenerants, of which 9 fragments were polymorphic. The same primer pairs generated 484 fragments for aberrant regenerants, of which 417 fragments were polymorphic. UPGMA clustering indicated that 42 normal regenerants and donor fell into same cluster at similarity scale of > 0. 99, while all 13 aberrant regenerants and one morphologically normal regenerant comprised the other clusters. AFLP analysis indicated that these 14 regenerants are off-types. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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