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Pingtung, Taiwan

Mayfield A.B.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Chan P.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Putnam H.M.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Chen C.-S.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

To understand the effects of global climate change on reef-building corals, a thorough investigation of their physiological mechanisms of acclimatization is warranted. However, static temperature manipulations may underestimate the thermal complexity of the reefs in which many corals live. For instance, corals of Houbihu, Taiwan, experience changes in temperature of up to 10°C over the course of a day during spring-tide upwelling events. To better understand the phenotypic plasticity of these corals, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted whereby specimens of Seriatopora hystrixfrom an upwelling reef (Houbihu) and conspecifics from a non-upwelling reef (Houwan) were exposed to both a stable seawater temperature (26°C) regime and a regime characterized by a 6°C fluctuation (23-29°C) over a 12 h period for 7days. A suite of physiological and molecular parameters was measured in samples of both treatments, as well as in experimental controls, to determine site of origin (SO) and temperature treatment (TT) responses. Only chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration and growth demonstrated the hypothesized trend of higher levels when exposed to a TT that mimicked SO conditions. In contrast, chl a, maximum dark-adapted quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and Symbiodinium ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL), photosystem I (psI, subunit III) and phosphoglycolate phosphatase (pgpase) mRNA expression demonstrated significant TT effects. Specifically, levels of these response variables were higher in samples exposed to a variable temperature regime, suggesting that S. hystrix may acclimate to fluctuating temperatures by increasing its capacity for photosynthesis. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source


Putnam H.M.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology | Mayfield A.B.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.Y.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.Y.,National Dong Hwa University | And 4 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2013

Given the threats of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate to marine ecosystems, there is an urgent need to better understand the response of not only adult corals, which are particularly sensitive to environmental changes, but also their larvae, whose mechanisms of acclimation to both temperature increases and ocean acidification are not well understood. Brooded larvae from the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan, were exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (25 or 29 °C) and pCO2 (415 or 635 μatm) in a factorial experiment for 9 days, and a variety of physiological and molecular parameters were measured. Respiration and rubisco protein expression decreased in larvae exposed to elevated temperature, while those incubated at high pCO2 were larger in size. Collectively, these findings highlight the complex metabolic and molecular responses of this life history stage and the need to integrate our understanding across multiple levels of biological organization. Our results also suggest that for this pocilloporid larval life stage, the impacts of elevated temperature are likely a greater threat under near-future predictions for climate change than ocean acidification. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Chen B.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chao C.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Su J.-H.,Mei Ho Institute of Technology | Wen Z.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | And 2 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three novel eunicellin-based diterpenoids, namely klysimplexin sulfoxides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the cultured soft coral Klyxum simplex. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D-NMR experiments. Compounds 1-3 significantly inhibited the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Compound 3 also showed marked activity in inhibiting the expression of COX-2 protein in the same cells. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Chen B.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang S.-M.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Su J.-H.,Taiwan Coral Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2011

Seven new polyoxygenated steroids, hirsutosterols A-G (1-7), were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Cladiella hirsuta. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, particularly in 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 5 were determined by Mosher's method. Sterols 4-6 possess hydroxy groups at C-9 and C-11 and might be oxidatively cleaved to the corresponding 9,11-secosterols. Hirsutosterol A (1) was found to exhibit a stronger cytotoxicity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Chen B.-W.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chao C.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Su J.-H.,Taiwan Coral Research Center | Huang C.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2010

A structurally unique symmetric sulfur-containing biscembranoid, namely, thioflexibilolide A (1), was isolated from the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 has been found to possess significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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